Differentiating Instruction Strategies for Math and Science By:

Jessica Murrell

Laura Templer

Emily Utter IDENTIFIED TRENDS FOR DIVERSE LEARNERS:

Pros and Cons for Constructed and Instructed Learning: (issues regarding trends for diverse learners)

Constructed learning: Uses hands on learning, learning through inquiry, making conceptual meaning. This type of learning is great for those who are visual learners

Cons:

Some learners do not function well within unstructured learning activities

Pacing is slower and may not be rapid enough to cover broad content for tests.

Instructed Learning: Teaching with textbooks, using vocabulary and emphasizing facts in order to teach standards.

Cons:

Students have a hard time understanding new vocabulary. Teacher-directed instruction without hands-on opportunities can be difficult to understand.

This type of learning can exclude independent thinking. Instructional issues

•Use demonstrations instead of just words

•Show students how to control their results

•Use simple instructions, introduce science vocabulary Tips for teaching diverse learners (specifically in science): Flexible Grouping:

Occurs after individual assessment and whole-group instruction.

Students will be group based on academic needs.

Creates temporary groups for an hour, day, week, or length of a unit.

Students who are near mastery of a concept will be grouped with students who have mastered the concept successfully. The students will teach each other (both groups will benefited - peer interaction).

Advantages: Peer tutoring, small group instruction, and collaboration activities

(Center for Comprehensive, 2009)

Tiered Instruction:

Used to place students in different tiers based on his or her academic level or interests. There are different levels of difficulty.

Students are placed based on prior knowledge, skills, and assessment scores.

Allows students with low skills the opportunity to grow academically.

Allows students at a higher academic level the opportunity to go past the basics and progress to more complex content areas.

Modifying instruction is essential to tiered instruction because of the multiple levels of learning within the classroom.

(Center for Comprehensive, 2009) Trends in Differentiating Instruction for

Math & Science Centers for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement (2009). A look at differentiating instruction: Tips for teachers. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED506362

Kay, A. (n.d.). Technology tips for differentiated instruction. Retrieved April 7, 2013, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8134049_technology-tips-differentiated-instruction.html

Adams, C., & Pierce, R. (2004). Tiered Lessons: One Way to Differentiate Mathematics Instruction. Gifted Child Today, 27(2), 50-65. Retrieved from http://www.davidsongifted.org/db/Articles_id_10513.aspx References Trends in Differentiating Instruction for

Math & Science Continued... Classroom Centers:

Allows students to work cooperatively with others.

More choices are available for the learning experience.

There are a different set of learning goals for each center that students will need to meet.

Centers can be more advanced that others to challenge students

(Centers for Comprehensive, 2009)

Incorporating Technology:

Allows teachers to present lessons, activities, and materials in multiple ways.

Students can present projects or material using technology.

Present information through PowerPoint, websites, Internet tours, and videos on a SMART Board (if available) (Kay).

Use of technology allows students to interact with each other and the teacher.

Technology will include visuals, discussions, and demonstrations, which will allow visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners to benefit from the use of technology.

Students can play academic games or applications on the computer or iPad to enhance the learning process. Tiered Lesson Plan Grade: First

Subject: Math

Standard: Numbers and Operations

Objective: Students represent commonly used fractions such as 1/4 and 1/2. Students will be able to illustrate how fractions represent part of a whole.

Materials: Paper circles, squares, rectangles, and triangles

Assessment: Teacher will circulate among groups taking note of children's abilities to divide materials into equal parts and to recognize and check for equal parts. Teacher will asses if children can explain orally how many equal parts there are and demonstrate how they know the parts are equal. (Adams & Pierce, 2004) Tiered Lesson Plan Summary

Tier I: Using paper circles (pizzas) and squares (sandwich), students in pairs determine how to share the food equally and illustrate by folding the paper. Have two pairs determine how they can share equally with four people. The can cut parts and stack them to see if they match. Have the quad repeat the process sharing a peanut butter cup equally with three people.

Tier II: Using paper circles (pizza) and squares (sandwich), have students in triads determine how to share the food equally and illustrate by folding the paper. Have two triads determine how the can share equally with six people. Have the group of six repeat the process for sharing a birthday cake with 12 people. Have the group start with half a cake and divide equally for 3, 6, and 12 people

Tier III: Using paper rectangles (sandwiches) and triangles (slices of pie), have students in pairs determining how to share the food in three different ways to get two equal parts. Have them illustrate by folding the paper. Have the pair determine which shapes are easier to divide evenly and illustrate why (Adams & Pierce, 2004) Can the trends be used in math and science? All four trends can be incorporated into math and science classes. The trends enhance the learning process for students. Students will be engaged with the teacher and other students, which is essential to building community within a classroom.

Flexible Grouping: Math and science teachers can group students according to academic level to review for a unit test.

Tiered Instruction: Math and science teachers can use tiered instruction to create games that are at different levels to meet the needs of each tier level.

Classroom Centers (Cooperative Learning): Math and science teachers can create different math games or science experiments for each center.

Technology: Math and science teachers can allow students to use internet resources to practice math problems or science concepts.

Math Website: http://www.mathchimp.com/index.php

Science Website: http://www.lawrencehallofscience.org/kidsite/

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# Differentiating Instruction

Strategies for Math and Science

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