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Thailand: Southern Insurgency

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by

Katherine Then

on 20 December 2013

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Transcript of Thailand: Southern Insurgency

Thailand:
Southern Insurgency

Country Profile
Insurgent Groups
Cross Cutting Issues
Government Corruption

Lack of understanding
Caused mishandling of the insurgency
Switch focus towards Bangkok and away from southern provinces
Cross Cutting Issues
Education

• Violent attacks

• Quality of education

• Military presence
School children inspect the remains of their classrooms after an arson attack on a government school in Pattani province on June 7, 2012.
Relevant Actors
UNDP Thailand
Southern Border Provinces
Administration Centre (SBPAC)
World Bank
Grassroots Organizations
• STEP Project
• Farmers Initiative
• Socially inclusive development approaches
Interfaith counseling
Development Issues
Insurgency Origins
Human Trafficking/ Migrant workers
HIV/AIDS
Environment
Corruption
Southern Insurgency
Patani Kingdom

http://www.globalpost.com/video/5671563
Greater control of region
1921: Primary Education Act
Assimilation and Standardization
Ethnic Malay culture
1946-1948 Uprising
1990s: Pondoks
Muslim schoolchildren
walking by a
soldier in
Narathiwat Province
Police inspect the
site of a car
bombing in
Pattani Province
September 2012
October 2009
Anglo-Siamese Treaties of 1902 & 1909
Contains 1.8 million people
80% Malay-Muslims

Beginning of Malay national resistance movement
Patani People's Movement
1947: Military coup
"THAIZATION"
400 dead
Ethnic Cleavage
Thai-Muslims
Malay-Muslims

Thai-Buddhists
1939
1947-1991
2007
1997
1932
1238
Thailand: "Land of the Free"
Multiple coups
New constitution
New, and current, constitution drafted
Siam is founded
End of absolute monarchy
Bersatu
United Front for the Independence of Pattani
Umbrella organization
BRN-C
Barisan Revolusi Nasional Pattani-Melayu-Koordinasi (BRN-Coordinate)

µ Most active militant group
PULO
Pattani United Liberation Organization

Focus on regional and ethnic independence
GMIP
Gerakan Mujahadeen Islam Pattani

Supports a separate Islamic state
Security Forces
National Security Council (NSC)
Internal Security Operations Command (ISOC)
Southern Border Provinces Administrative Centre (SBPAC)
Relevant Development Policies
National Security Policies
January 2004
National Security Policies for the Southern Border Provinces
20 Government Schools
Police Posts & Army Camp
1988-1993
1994-1998
1999-2003
Thai Education System
Special Security Law
The Martial Law
January 5, 2004
Detain suspects for 7 days
Gave military authority over civil agencies
The Deadliest Day:
March 31, 2012
The Emergency Decree
Vulnerable Groups
July 19, 2005
Holding of suspects for up to 30 days
Sections XVI & XVII
Internal Security Act (ISA)
Farmers
House workers
December 2009 in 4 southeastern Districts of Songkhla
Prohibited detention without charge
Section XXI protects civilian rights
Students
Religious Leaders
Southern Border Provinces Administration Act
Re-emerging Conflict
December 2010
Independence of SBPAC
Southern Border Provinces Development Strategy Committee
• Thailand - Largest civil society community in SE Asia

• Civil Society Council of Southernmost Thailand - 5 aims

• Patani Peace Process


Constraints
On Policy Making

Recommendations
Local
Social Environment
Other Security Policies
Government decentralization
CBOs promote ethnic and cultural awareness
Revoke the Special Laws
Southern Border Provinces Special Zone Development Plan 2009-2012
Draw more national attention to insurgency
National Security Policy for the Southern Border Provinces 2012-2014
Economic development and stability
Hostile Relationships
Raise international awareness
Military
Political Struggle
6 point action plan
57% of citizens felt more confident in the safety of their lives and property because of a decline in violence
63% have begun to place more trust in security operations
Based on the framework 2009-2012 development plan
The basis of its policies are to address injustice
Recognizes the political nature of the conflict
คำถามSoalan?
Recommendation Activity
Questions?
2011
Yingluck Shinawatra elected as Prime Minister
Activity:
Find a partner!
Learning Objectives
Country Profile
Development Issues
Origins of Southern Insurgency
Insurgent Groups
Ethnic Cleavage
Re-emerging Conflict
Cross Cutting Issues
Development Policies
Constraints
Relevant Actors
Recommendations
#$treetQueen$
#thailyfe
Full transcript