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Portugal in Middle Ages
Transcript of Portugal in Middle Ages
Geography of the country
Castles of Portugal
Situated in the South-West of Europe, Portugal is a small country and has as neighbors Atlantic Ocean and Spain.
Has a population between 10-11 million people.
The capital is at Lisbon.
Portugal is a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
It entered the European Community (now the European Union) in 1986.
Back in History...
The history of Portugal, a European and an Atlantic nation, dates back to the Early Middle Ages. In the 15th and 16th centuries, it ascended to the status of a world power; it built up a vast empire including possessions in South America, Africa, Asia..
The country got its name from the city of Porto , the second largest in the country , whose Latin name was Portus Cale.
Country's history has influenced its culture, Oriental influences on architecture and art beeing evident.
Over the past 3000 years , the Portuguese territory stood witness to the passage of numerous civilizations. Phoenicians , Greeks , Celts , Romans and Arabs had a strong cultural impact.
In 1290 Portugal's first university was founded in Lisbon. (Although it soon moved to Coimbra).
In the Middle Ages, the agriculture flourished.
Celebrations dedicated to three saints known as the " Santos Populares " ( Popular saints ) take place all over Portugal in June of each year. This festival is characterized by manifestations of folk dance and music.
By the Middle Ages, Portugal was a crossroads of cultures.
The 13th and 14th centuries was a period a flamboyant castle building, with more decorative touches and features, like pepper pots on towers, ornate brickwork and massive great halls built of stone. Many of these castles became fortified palaces to protect the monarch and courts.
How do they cook and what do they eat?
The cuisine varies by region, usually meat and seafood.
The north is known for
Also important are
The traditional bread, especially in the northwest, is
. In central Portugal,
are more common.
is a common flavoring for desserts, such as the traditional rice pudding .
Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions:
One of the most important ceremonies in rural households is the annual killing and preserving of the pig.
Portugal in Middle Ages
Nicoleta Dragoi, UPT, ETC, PI I, G:1.2
There are several legends about this enchanted castle, including one that says it is haunted by a princess. Its foundations are Celtic and Roman, but it was rebuilt by the Knights Templar in 1171. Eighteen meters (60 ft) high and with nine towers, it stands in the center of a small island in the middle of the Tagus River surrounded by a romantic atmosphere.
This charming little castle perched on rocks is found in a small town in the north of the country. Over one thousand years old, it was mentioned in a medieval tale of twelve Portuguese knights who went to England to compete in honor of twelve English ladies. The interior is empty but there are wonderful views from the walls.
This is one of the most complete medieval monuments in the country. It’s a fairytale castle crowning a hill in the town of Santa Maria da Feira, built in the 11th century, redesigned in the 15th, and one of the very few that have been beautifully restored in the last few decades.
SANTA MARIA DA FEIRA CASTLE
The Portuguese Renaissance refers to the cultural and artistic movement in Portugal during the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries. Though the movement coincided with the Spanish and Italian Renaissances, the Portuguese Renaissance was largely separate from other European Renaissances and instead was incredibly important in opening Europe to the unknown and bringing a more worldly view to those European Renaissances, as at the time the Portuguese Empire spanned the globe.
The Portuguese Renaissance produced a plethora of poets, historians, critics, theologians, and moralists, of whom the Portuguese Renaissance was their golden age.
The standardization of the Portuguese language started in 1536, when Fernão de Oliveira published his "Grammatica da lingoagem portuguesa", the first literary piece that laid rules and standards for the Portuguese language.
Painting was one of the more distinguishing factors of the Portuguese Renaissance, being one of the more contrasting arts to the other Renaissances of Europe.
In terms of architecture, much like many sections of the arts, the Portuguese Renaissance did not, for the most and initial part, follow the paths of the other Renaissances, which heavily focused on the sophistication and simplicity of the ancient Greeks and Romans. For the larger part of the Portuguese Renaissance, its architecture was largely the continuation and elaboration of the Gothic style.
Belém Tower or the Tower of St Vincent is a fortified tower located in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém in the municipality of Lisbon, Portugal.
The tower was built in the early 16th century and is a prominent example of the Portuguese Manueline style, but it also incorporates hints of other architectural styles. The structure was built from lioz limestone and is composed of a bastion and the 30 m (100 foot), four storey tower. It has incorrectly been stated that the tower was built in the middle of the Tagus and now sits near the shore because the river was redirected after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. In fact, the tower was built on a small island in the Tagus River near the Lisbon shore.
The Santa Cruz Monastery, best known as Igreja (Church) de Santa Cruz is a National Monument in Coimbra, Portugal.
Through the whole 16th century, worked at Santa Cruz de Coimbra the most respected architects, sculptors and painters, such as Diogo de Castilho, Machim and Jean of Rouen, Cristóvão de Figueiredo and Vasco Fernandes besides the already mentioned Chanterene, Boytac and Diogo Pires the Younger. The sacristy dates back to the 17th century and keeps some notable 16th century canvases.
Santa Cruz Monastery