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CHAPTER 6: KKK and the Philippine Revolution
Transcript of CHAPTER 6: KKK and the Philippine Revolution
CHAPTER 6: KKK and the Philippine Revolution
CRY OF BALINTAWAK/PUGADLAWAN
•Led by Bonifacio, the Katipuneros tore their cedula certificates which symbolizes the Filipino vassalage to Spain
•The first battle of the Katipuneros with the Spaniards took place at Barrio of Pasong Tamo
•Bonifacio then led his force to Hagdang Bato in Mandaluyong where he issued his manifesto urging the Filipinos to rise up against the Spaniards.
•The Katipuneros planned to attack the polvorin or powder magazine in San Juan del Monte on August 30 in an attempt to seize weapons.
•The coordinated attack on the polvorin, however, never took place as Bonifacio had overslept.
•Around 150 Katipuneros lost their lives in this first major battle of the revolution.
•The Katipuneros of Cavite began the revolution by seizing the town halls and seizing the arms of the local police and civil guards on the early hours of August 31
FALL OF BONIFACIO AND RISE OF AGUINALDO
Upon the arrival of Bonifacio in Cavite, the Katipuneros did not have a good opinion of their supremo.
outsider, interloper who would lord over them
Spanish agent, unfit for leadership and a mason
KATIPUNAN AND JAPAN
FOUNDING OF KATIPUNAN
Failure of Spain to grant reforms = REVOLUTION
Spain as the "mother country"
- Spain as the "oppressive master"
After Rizal's arrest...a group composed of:
, and Andres
Azcarraga Street in Tondo
on the night of
July 7, 1982
They formed the
Kataastaasang Kagalanggalang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan
They formed a
by drawing blood from their arms and use it to write their names on the membership forms.
FOUNDING OF KATIPUNAN
An original member takes in two individuals who do not know each other.
"What we were
the coming of the Spaniards?"
"What are we
"What are we in the
All answers should point to
Relics - like soutane of Fr. Burgos
LEVELS OF A KATIPUNERO
- wears a black hood -
ANAK NG BAYAN
- wears a greenhood -
- wears a red mask -
Secretary of State:
Secretary of War:
Secretary of Justice:
Secretary of Interior:
Aguedo Del Rosario
Secretary of Finance:
Social and Moral Aims of Katipunan
The Katipunan has two goals:
to overthrow the Spanish rule and bring back the freedom of Filipinos
to have an internal revolution that involves a reform of individual values
written by Andres Bonifacio; revised by Emilio Jacinto. It was intended as a simple primer on patriotism for the ordinary Katipuneros.
- written by Andres Bonifacio; guidelines on how to become a good citizen, to love God, and fellowmen.
of the Katipuneros grew suspicious about the mysterious disappearance of their husbands and the reduction of their income.
The Supreme Council decided to form a women's section.
Only allowed in the section are the
of the Katipuneros.
They held dances and parties in houses while the men are secretly having a meeting in the back rooms.
Gregoria de Jesus
KATIPUNAN: AS SEEN BY THE SPANIARDS
Cuerpo de Vigilancia -
or the Intelligence Service of the Spaniards reported the meetings of men and gathering of arms for some unknown purpose.
Jose Maria del Castillo
, the Katipunan is an "association of notable criminals." Filipinos = ingrates; Katipunan = led by masons and rich men.
He also believes that Bonifacio, Jacinto, and others were not the real leaders but they were placed by rich Filipinos.
Governor General Ramon Blanco
, the KKK was a product of imagination of fanatical Spaniards and friars.
Through the charity of two Katipuneros from Aklan
Teofilo del Castillo
, who worked as pearl divers in northern Australia and won a P 1000 in a lottery, donated P 4000 to buy an old printing press from
The newspaper was named
and edited by
Oroquieta Street in Quiapo
; confused the Spanish authorities. It also indicated that
Marcelo H. Del Pilar
was it's editor
January 18, 1896 -
first issue of
It contained issues such as: "
Ang Dapat Mabatid ng mga Tagalog"
"Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Bayan"
They used pseudonym to protect themselves.
A second issue was being prepared when Revolution broke out.
The press was moved to
Clavis Street in San Nicolas
When the Spaniards raided the place, Jacinto, Dugue, and Fernandez had destroyed the press.
RIZAL AND THE KATIPUNAN
PLANS FOR THE REVOLUTION
THE DISCOVERY OF THE KATIPUNAN
REIGN OF TERROR
REVOLUTION IN MINDANAO
THE REVOLUTION CONTINUES
THE PACT OF BIAK NA BATO
STRUGGLE CONTINUES DESPITE AGUINALDO'S CAPITULATION
AGUINALDO IN HONG KONG
THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR
GERMANY'S INTENTIONS ON THE PHILIPPINES
- last document was signed.
To ensure that the Spanish authorities would not break their agreement, they demanded two Spanish generals. On
General Celestino Tejeiro
General Ricardo Monet
became hostages of the revolutionists.
Aguinaldo, Paterno, and other revolutionary leader
left on the same day.
port of Sual
steam of boat Uranus
At Biak-na-Bato, the remaining
tried their best to comply with the agreement of the truce...but many still hold on to their weapons.
Spanish authorities WERE NOT ABLE to pay the
was divided between the remaining
Primo de Rivera
collected the money for himself.
Periodic clashes took place in many provinces
In Ilocos Sur,
- Cry of Candon
- same date with Cry of Candon (
March 25, 1898
In Central Luzon,
General Francisco Macabulos
who once fought for the Spaniards returned to the revolutionary struggle.
He formed the
who would continue to fight for independence until a general government of the Republic is re-established.
The resumption of the hostilities after Biak-na-Bato was a people's war yearning for independence after Aguinaldo and others entered a compromise with Spain.
Filipino exiles in Hong Kong formed the
Philippine Revolutionary Committee
Jose Ma. Basa.
Later joined by Aguinaldo.
The committee sent them food, clothing, and medicines donated by Filipino residents in the colony.
Knowing that war would erupt anytime between USA and Spain over Cuba,
- 200,000 rifles upon recognition of an independent Philippine government.
With the arrival of Aguinaldo, the committee became a junta.
was equally divided and deposited at the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank and Chartered Bank of India, China, and Australia.
Only interest for their needs can be withdrawn by exiles.
Signs of dissession began.
had assumed the powers of the President and he wanted that the
second and third installments
be divided among the
and also Aguinaldo's.
Upon learning the actions of Artacho and company,
Aguinaldo, Jose Leyba and Gregorio del Pilar
left Hong Kong.
Artacho sued Aguinaldo but the case never prospered.
With the help of mutual friends, Aguinaldo and Artacho reconciled.
Later it was found out that Artacho was serving as a double agent for the Spaniards.
His arrest was ordered in May 1898.
The relationship between the USA and Spain continued to worsen over the Cuban question.
Spain accused the USA for supporting rebel while the Americans were appalled at the cruel measures undertaken by Spaniards against the insurgents.
- exaggerate news about the conduct of Spain's involvement in Cuba. These journalists were supported by big American businessmen which will be surely benefited by war with Spain since it would open Cuba to American trade.
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge and Alfred Beveridge
- believed that the United States was fated to expand westward not only to the pacific coast but should have access to markets in China...etc...
was the key to America's rise to a world power.
With the worsening situation in Cuba, the USA sent the cruiser USS Maine in order to protect American interests on the island.
February 15, 1898
- mysterious explosion destroyed the warship and killed 246 men.
April 21, 1898
declared a state of war between USA and Spain.
began to court Filipino leaders as possible allies against Spain
assured Aguinaldo of American support when he returns to the Philippines.
sent a message to
about the progress of their meeting.
After receiving instructions from
Navy Secretary John D. Long,
Dewey proceed against the Spanish fleet in the Philippines.
May 1, 1898,
he defeated the Spanish fleet called
within Manila Bay. Following his victory, Dewey sent the revenue cutter
to fetch Aguinaldo from HK to Manila.
With a renewed fighting spirit, Filipino insurgents won successive victories in
was so happy at the column of Spanish prisoners marching to Cavite; he brought out a new national flag sewn by
, wife of Felipe Agoncillo.
issued a decree creating a dictatorial government under the advice of
Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista
Governor General Basilio Agustin
which promises autonomy for the Filipinos. It was composed of mestizos.
The assembly failed due to most Filipinos wanting nothing less than independence.
March 1 1895
•March 1, 1896
•May 4, 1896
•Jose Moritaro Tagawa
•Bonifacio wanted Jose Rizal to lead the revolution and unify all Filipinos in the struggle against Spain
•RAYMUNDO MATA – A blind man who was brought along by Jacinto and Valenzuela upon visiting Rizal in Dapitan to make it appear that he was being sent there for medical treatment
•ANTONIO LUNA – He was suggested by Rizal
•MAY 4, 1896 – general assembly of Katipuneros and officers at the second floor of the bazaar
•CAVES OF PAMITINAN – This is where Katipuneros inducted more members using blood compact
•TEODORO PATINO – a worker at Diario de Manila who revealed the revolutionary movement to the Spaniards
•APOLONIO DE LA CRUZ – Patino’s rival in promotion at Diario de Manila
•HONORIA – Patino’s sister, an inmate at the Hospicio de San Jose, to whom he revealed existence of Katipunan
•FR. MARIANO GIL – An Augustinian friar to whom Patino was advised to reveal the details of Katipunan including its plan to murder all Spaniards.
•AUGUST 19, 1896 – discovery of Katipunan
Meanwhile, the reign of terror was unleashed as the Spaniards arrested more suspects. Filipino spies betrayed their countrymen and reported them to the authorities.
She fed, gave medical attention and encouraged the revolutionaries with motherly advice and prayers
Secret meetings of were also held at her house
“Grand Woman of the revolution”
“Mother of Balintawak”
“Mother of the Katipunan”
“Mother of the Philippine Revolution“
Bilibid Prison -> Guam with 200 others
Persons with scars were automatically arrested and imprisoned
Hold 50 inmates
But 150 were crammed inside
Died of suffocation
Found dead, standing up
Gov. Gen. Ramon Blanco
His decree offered pardon for those who would surrender within 48 hours except for the leaders of the Katipunan
Others were tortured to reveal the names of the members
Executions immediately followed beginning with the leaders namely, Sancho Valenzuela, Eugenio Silvestre, Modesto Sarmiento and Ramon Peralta at Bagumbayan
Executed at Plaza de Armas
Sept. 12, 1896
Inocencio, Aguado, Luciano,
Perez, Lallana, San Agustin,
Conchu, Cabuco, Gregorio,
Cabezas, Lapidario, de Ocampo, and Osorio
Tarlac: 14 citizens
Bicol region: 15 persons
Kalibo: 19 Katipuneros
Spain: Juan and Antonio Luna, Isabelo de los Reyes
Fernando Po Island off Africa
Marianas in Guam (poor sanitation and overcrowding)
Polavieja was worn out by the endless battles
Fernando Primo de Rivera - Offered pardon to surrenderees
Filipinos established a Departmental Government of Central Luzon (Manila, Bulacan, Pangasinan, Laguna)
Gov. Gen. De Rivera prohibited the people from leaving their towns and villages to prevent the flow of insurgents
Aguinaldo issued a proclamation calling on all Filipinos
xpulsion of the friars
Return of Filipino’s lands
Representation in the Spanish Cortes
Freedom of press
Toleration of religious sects
Equal treatment and pay for peninsular and insular officials
Abolition of government power
- These demands show Aguinaldo’s willingness to negotiate with Spain and give up the revolutionary struggle
The Filipinos, then, established a republican government at Biak na Bato with a constitution prepared by Felix Ferrer and Isabelo Artacho which was signed on Nov. 1, 1897.
The following day, Biak-na-Bato Republic was inaugurated by Emilio Aguinaldo who was elected as president
Promised amnesty to those who would surrender
There were 20 surrenderees who were tortured and ordered to be shot the following day
Gov. Gen. Camilo de Polavieja
Suspended municipal elections
Ordered arrest, deportation and execution of many Filipinos including Rizal
Araw ng Nueva Ecija
The provincial governor, friars and soldiers became prisoners of the Katipuneros
- Besieged the town’s friar house and burned its occupants
Managed to capture rifles and a cannon which they later used against the Spaniards
Capitan Miong became General Aguinaldo
REPUBLIC OF KANGKONG DE SILI
In Bulacan, members of the Balangay Katipunan set up a republic
December 4, 1896
Eusebio Roque aka Maestrong Sebio or Dimabunggo
Held to decide on the fate of Katipunan and unite the organization
Attended mostly by delegates of Cavite who were Magdiwangs
- Delegates voted for a new revolutionary government led by a president
Director of War:
Riego de Dios
Director of Interior:
(Jose del Rosario)
Negotiations were held between
volunteered to act as a negotiator between the Filipinos & Spaniards
= Truce of Biak na Bato
= program was sinned
Under the program,
leaders of the revolution
were to live in exile abroad.
paid to revolutionists in installments.
- Upon Aguinaldo's depature from Biak-na-Bato
- Amount of arms surrendered exceeding 700
was sung and general amnesty
The imminent fall of Spanish authority attracted other foreign powers to the Philippines.
Following Dewey’s victory at Manila Bay, countries such as Germany, Japan, Great Britain , and France sent their warships to protect their respective interests in the Philippines.
The Germans proved to be a great irritation to Dewey. While the other countries respected his authority, the Germans acted provocatively.
The German squadron which had eight ships was larger than that of the Americans who only had seven.
Its manpower complement was bigger than the Americans and their armaments were also superior.
The Germans were looking for lands to colonize.
Documents in the German foreign ministry revealed the existence of three plans concerning the Philippines:
- to place the Philippines under a German prince
- to divide the Philippines among the world powers including Germany.
- to place the country under the guarantee of the world powers.
The German foreign minister
Bernhard von Bulow
expected that Filipinos would support German rule because many Filipino leaders had a deep admiration for the German nation.
German provocations in Manila Bay reached its climax following the incident involving the warship Cormoran and US navy ships.
The German vessel ignored the signals for it stop - for boarding and inspection.
immediately sent an officer to complain to Dewey about the provocations committed by the Americans.
There were some tense moments in Manila Bay after the German officer left to report to Von Diederichs. At this point Captain Sir Edward Chichester of the British navy moved his ships closer to the Americans.
The balance of power now shifted in favor of Dewey as the combined British and American forces were now more superior than that of the Germans.
Aug. 13, 1898. The German ships quietly left.
July 17. Aguinaldo offered Gov. Gen. Basilio Agustin the terms of an honorable surrender and guaranteed the immunity of the persons and properties of those who surrendered.
Spain instructed Agustin to surrender only to the Americans because…
Surrendering to the Filipinos would be harmful to Spanish honor
Surrendering to the Americans might give them concessions including a money indemnity
They feared retribution from the Filipinos
Agustin made the offer to surrender to the Americans in July but Dewey refused because he lacked men to occupy the city.
As the Filipinos were securing most of the country, Aguinaldo had the dictatorial gov’t disbanded and replaced by a revolutionary form of gov’t.
Taking advantage of the momentum, in the late afternoon of June 12, Aguinaldo had the independence of the Philippines formally proclaimed.
Though opposed by Mabini who said that the proclamation of independence was “premature and imprudent,” it had another purpose of sending a message to the Americans of the Filipinos’ resolve to attain their freedom
Aug. 22. the proclamation of independence was approved by local officials gathering in Bacoor.
Aguinaldo’s officials began to develop suspicions about the American intentions in the country. The Filipinos were forced to vacate their positions to accommodate the increasing number of American troops.
While these events were transpiring the Spaniards and Americans were meeting secretly.
It was decided that a mock battle (“Battle of Manila”) be waged to save Spanish honor and that Filipinos should have no participation.
Aug. 13, American warships began bombarding Manila.
Spain officially sued for peace on July 22
Aguinaldo moved the capital of his gov’t to Malolos on Aug. 22.
Sept. 15. The Revolutionary Congress was inaugurated.
Sept. 29. the Congress approved the proclamation of Philippine independence
The Congress then moved to draft a constitution for a republic. Three drafts were presented to Congress by…
Mabini’s opponents his Constitutional Program reasoning that it was too Masonic.
The Paterno draft reminded the Congress of the Spanish Constitution of 1868 and was also rejected.
The last draft made by Calderon which was inspired by the constitution of France, Belgium, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Brazil and Nicaragua, was accepted.
Debates on the draft constitution lasted until Nov. 5, 1898.
Jan. 21. General Aguinaldo proclaimed the 1899 Constitution
Jan. 23. the Philippine Republic was inaugurated.
Event's Affecting Aguinaldo's Actions
Dec. 10, 1898. Treaty of Paris
After much deliberation the Americans decided to keep the Philippines.
To American capitalists the Philippines represented a rich source of raw materials for American industries and a market for American goods.
Under the Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico and in return received an indemnity of $20M.
Filipino diplomats led by Felipe Agoncillo were to propose practical alternatives to the colonization of the Philippines.
December 1898. Aguinaldo publicly protested the Treaty of Paris.
While Manila was already in the hands of the Americans, Filipinos in other parts of the islands continued to fight the Spaniards in other parts of the country.
Troops led by Aniceto Lacson and Juan Araneta convened a gov’t that proclaimed loyalty to Aguinaldo.
In Mindanao, revolutionary activities and events in Manila forced the Spanish troops to evacuate their posts and concentrate themselves in Zamboanga.
With the signing of the Treaty of Paris. The Spanish forces withdrew to Zamboanga and abandoned their fortifications.
The Filipinos controlled Mindanao for at least 6 months before the Americans took over the island.