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Rocks

Earth Science Rock Unit Notes
by

Sarah Niemeyer

on 11 April 2014

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Transcript of Rocks

Rock Unit
Learning Objectives
Describe how geologists classify rocks.

Grains
Texture
Igneous Rock
Sedimentary Rock
Metamorphic Rock

Minerals & Rocks Unit
Section2: Classifying Rocks

Vocabulary
1. Mineral Composition
Other rocks contain several minerals
2. Rock Color
Diorite
3. Texture
= the look and feel of a rock's surface
Geologists use observe four characteristics when studying a rock.
- solid =
- liquid =
If you were a geologist...
scientists that studies the solid and liquid matter that makes up Earth
...how would you examine a rock for the first time?
About 20 minerals make up most of the rocks of Earth's crust
= rock forming minerals
Example: Granite is made up of quartz, feldspar, mica, and hornblende
Rocks are made up of mixtures of minerals and other materials.
Some rocks contain only a single mineral
Color can help determine a rocks mineral composition
Light colored = felsic
Granite
Dark colored = mafic
Gabbro
In-between = intermediate
Most rocks are made up of particles of minerals or other rocks
= grains
Grains give the rock its texture
Described by looking at the size, shape and pattern of the grains
Grain Size
= fine grained
Grain Shape
Rounded/smoothed edges
Grain Pattern
= banded rock
Rocks with grains that are large and easy to see
Rocks that have grains that are so small you need a microscope to see them
= coarse grained
Slate
Diorite
Flint
BUT sometimes rocks have no visible grains
= jagged grain
= rounded grain
Jagged/rough edges
When grains line up in a pattern of flat layers, swirls, or colored bands
= nonbanded rock
When grains do not lie in any visible pattern
4. Origin of the Rock
Places all rocks into three major groups
#1 Igneous Rock
below ground
#2 Sedimentary Rock
Forms from small particles of rock or the remains of plants and animals pressed and cemented together.
#3 Metamorphic Rock
Form when a rock is changed by heat or pressure
Forms from the cooling of magma or lava
Magma =
above ground
Lava =
Forms in layers that are buried below the surface.
Form deep underground
The way a rock formed
Determined using color, texture, and mineral composition
Learning Objectives
Identify the characteristics used to identify igneous rocks

Extrusive Rock
Intrusive Rock
Silica

Minerals & Rocks Unit
Section 3: Igneous Rocks

Vocabulary
Learning Objectives
Describe how sedimentary rocks form.
List and describe the three major types of sedimentary rocks.

Compaction
Cementation
Clastic Rock
Organic Rock
Chemical Rock

Minerals & Rocks Unit
Section 4: Sedimentary Rocks

Vocabulary
Learning Objectives
Describe the conditions under which metamorphic rocks form.
Describe how geologists classify metamorphic rocks.

Foliated
Minerals & Rocks Unit
Section 5: Metamorphic Rocks

Vocabulary
Learning Objectives
Describe the rock cycle

Rock Cycle
Minerals & Rocks Unit
Section 6: The Rock Cycle

Vocabulary
Classifying Igneous Rocks
The first rocks to form on Earth
Origin of Igneous Rocks
Igneous rocks may form on or beneath the Earth's surface
Textures
large crystals
Mineral Composition
light colored rock
Weathering & Erosion
1. Destructive forces break up and wear away rocks on Earth's surface
Deposition
2. The process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind that was carrying it.
Compaction
3. Presses sediment together
Cementation
4. When the dissolved minerals crystallize and glue the particles of sediment together
1. Clastic Rocks
Made up of broken pieces of other rocks
Grouped by the size of the rock fragments
2. Organic Rocks
Forms when the remains of plants and animals are deposited in thick layers
3. Chemical Rocks
Form when minerals that are dissolved in a solution recrystallize
Metamorphic Rock
Every metamorphic rock is a rock that has changed its form
Heat and pressure deep beneath the Earth's surface can change any rock into a metamorphic rock
Types of Metamorphic Rocks
Based on the arrangement of the minerals
The name
igneous
comes from the Latin word
ignis
, meaning "fire"
Form from magma or lava
Making them the oldest rocks on Earth
Forms much of the ocean floor and land around volcanoes
Forms from
extrusive igneous rock
Above Earth's surface =
lava
intrusive igneous rock
magma
Forms from
Forms the core of many mountain ranges
Below Earth's surface =
Which cools faster, lava or magma?
Rapidly cooling lava forms
fine-grained rocks with
small crystals
Slowly cooling magma forms
coarse-grained rocks with
Most of Earth's minerals contain silica
which is a combination of oxygen and silicon
Example: Quartz
the amount of silica determines the type of rock that forms
dark colored rock
High silica content =
Facts about Sedimentary Rocks
Made up of sediment
= small, solid pieces of materials that come from rocks or living things
remains of living things
stems/leaves
bones
shells
pieces of rock
The Sedimentary Rock Process
Four steps to produce a sedimentary rock:
Heat
Wind
Ice
Waves
Rain
Water and the soil cause the minerals in the sediment to dissolve
The weight of new layers on top compacts the layers below
Thick layers of sediment build up over long periods of time
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
related to the formation of the rock
based on the type of sediments that make up the rock
Deposits in thin flat layers
Fine-Grained
Coarse-Grained
Most sand fragments of quartz
Rock fragments with rounded edges
Rock fragments with sharp edges
Layer upon layer of plant remains build up
The weight of the layers squeezes the decaying plants
Shells pile up on the ocean floor
Over long periods of time, the layers of sediment grow to great depths
forms by evaporation
made of the mineral halite
Rock Salt
Forms when calcite dissolves in bodies of water, then recrystallizes
Limestone
morphosis
, meaning "form"
meta
, meaning "change"
The word metamorphic comes from the Greek words
The deeper the rock is buried, the greater the
pressure
Changes to the rock include:
minerals
under high temps and pressure, the minerals in a rock can change into other
appearance
texture (size and shape of grains)
crystal structure
mineral content
- regular layers = foliated
- irregular = nonfoliated
Foliated Rocks
Extreme pressure can squeeze rocks so tightly that the mineral grains will line up in parallel layers
Nonfoliated Rocks
The mineral grains are arranged randomly

Rocks will usually split along these layers when broken
When broken, they do not split into layers
Slate
Schist
metamorphic
Gneiss
igneous
Quartzite
sedimentary
Marble
sedimentary
- forms from shale
sedimentary
metamorphic
Over time, the minerals of slate start to turn into mica, giving it a shiny appearance
- forms from slate
metamorphic
metamorphic
- forms from granite
metamorphic
quartz
Main mineral =
- forms from sandstone
metamorphic
calcite
Main mineral =
- forms from limestone
Low silica content =
mafic
felsic
Full transcript