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Pashtun vs. Hazara; Sunni vs. Shiite
Transcript of Pashtun vs. Hazara; Sunni vs. Shiite
cultural differences but are they so different? 9% of the Afghan population
They share physical, lingual, and cultural characteristics with the Mongols
Speak a Persianized Mongol language called Hazaragi
Live mostly in Central Afghanistan, "Hazarajat"
Traditionally nomads (like the Mongols!)
Hazara are mostly followers of the Shiite branch of Islam Share physical characteristics with the Mongol people of Central Asia They are one of Afghanistan's most impoverished ethnic groups, and one of the most resistant to centralized government control. The Hazara face discrimination and repression because of cultural/physical differences in relation to the Pashtun, the largest ethnic group. Hazara boy Pashtun Boy The Hazara Ethnic Group Pashtun Ethnic Group This girl is from the province of daikundi in the hazarajat region of afghanistan. Due to gender discrimination and poverty she has not had the opportunity to attend school.
(Nasim Fekrat; www.fekrat.org) Shiite Sunni The name Sunni translates to " tradition" A Sunni man Sunnis believe in temporary marriages Don't believe that Muhammad
designated a successor
Sunni shun formal clergy and sunni leaders are instead elected
The Koran holds political and religious law They occupy most of the
Middle East BeliEved to be a
PRAGMATIC GROUP Take up 16%
of Muslims Translated into "the party of Ali" Conflicts AND full name Shia't Ali Ruler is called the mujtahids One of Two Main Sects of Islam Shi'ites do not recognize the first three caliphs Leaders are called mujtahids They only recognize the fourth caliph, Ali Ali Flag: Pashtun led Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan Government (Communist) He is the manefestation of God and can interpret the Qur'an perfectly. was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad he was married to Fatimah, Muhammad's favorite daughter They believe that the imam must be a descendant of Muhammad There are different groups of Shi'ites. Soviet-Afghan War Most of the difference lies in how many imams they believe have come after Ali Most live in Soviet Goal: get rid of the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan
Pashtun government VS. the Soviet Republic
Soviets gave the other ethnicities political autonomy
Soviets withdrew in 1989
the minor ethnicities were not willing to give up power so easily Mass repression (arrests and executions) of tens of thousands:
Hazaras Most Pashtun are VS. Northern Alliance Differences from Sunnis Taliban 1. Imamate Imams are sinless They suffer persecution willingly Sunni Muslims are more widely diffused than Shiite Muslims Their knowledge comes from God the koran is to be taken literally! no images of islamic leaders
no elaborate tombs for famous muslims 2. Taqiyya The Extremist faction of Wahabists with
which Osama Binladen is associated falls under the Sunni branch of Islam Shi'ites are permitted to hide their beliefs when they are among people who would harm them fundamentalist Sunni Islamic group non-Pashtun, ethnic alliance
Tajik and Uzbek soldiers This probably developed due to the immense amount of discrimination Shi'ites have faced throughout history This persecution has led to the feeling among Shi'ites that they have been wronged by non-Shia Muslims. Taliban invaded the Mazar-i-Sharif, a Shiite holy site, the Taliban massacred the Hazaras that were defending it. 3. Taqlid Originally developed among both Sunnis and Shia, this is now mostly a Shia practice Modern Sunni thought disapproves of this practice. Shia should imitate or model themselves on the example of a pious scholar. 4. Khums Sunni's make up 83 % of Muslims Shi'ites must pay one fifth of their annual income to their local religious authority. This extra money has helped Shi'ite religious authorities remain free from government control throughout history. As Shiites, the Hazara highly value martyrdom as a tradition
Wrought from earlier experiences with the Sunni Holidays The major Shi'ite holiday is the celebration of the martyrdom of Hussain (Ali's son). On this day, Shi'ites perform plays and hold processions where they beat themselves until they bleed. They live in the mountianous and rugged part of Central Afghanistan and stick mostly to this region called "Hazarajat". The Hazara are said to be descended from Ghengis Khan's Army which marched into the area during the 1200's
The Hazara leaders were called "kahns" until they were subdued by the pashtun in 1891 Most Hazara are Ariel Cutter
Gianne Rayandayan the word hazara comes from the word
"hazar" meaning "one thousand" Shi'ites who belive there have been twelve imams are called Twelvers, while Shi'ites who believe there have only been seven imams are called Seveners. Most Shi'ites are Twelvers. 38% of the Afghan population
Largest ethnic group in Afghanistan
Situated throughout Afghanistan
They speak Pashto as their native tongue
Most Pashtuns follow the Sunni sect within Islam [alernative spellings] "Pushtun"
"Pathan". . . Pashtun tribe Pashtuns belong to a certain clan or tribe to dedicate their loyalty to. In the 1960's urban migration left Hazara males at the bottom of the social ladder. However, in recent years, their social standing has improved. "The Pathan tribes are always engaged in private or public war. Every man is a warrior, a politician, and a theologian. Every large house is a real feudal fortress... Every family cultivates its vendetta... Nothing is ever forgotten and very few debts are left unpaid." -Winston Churchill These clans/tribes are infamous for being violent with opposing clans/tribes. Conflicts often happen over property, women, or revenge. PASHTUNWALI A code of unwritten, moral laws
that the Pashtun people abide to. "Milmastia" . . .Hospitality
"Tureh" . . . .Courage
"Badal" . . . .Revenge/Justice
"Sabat" . . . .Loyalty
"Imandari" . . .Righteousness
"Ghayrat" . . . .Protection of one's honor
"Namus" . . . .Honor of women These laws stress the importance of... "Nanawati"
. . .Resolution through
tribal/clan elders They are considered the most powerful ethnic group
in Afghanistan. However, due to fighting between the
Taliban and U.S. forces, many were left displaced and
many emigrated from Afghanistan. The Ali are the direct descendants of Mohammad, Allah's prophet the shiites believe that their religious leaders are chosen from Mohammad's lineage Shiites highly value martyrdom as a tradition The doctrine of the Koran is more open to interpretation, but clerical hierarchy is more structured. Period 2