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on 28 April 2014

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Transcript of Hypnosis

Matt Ehrhardt
Cassie Washer
Megan Loback

Early Indications

Hindu Vedas
Ancient Egyptians
18th Century
Franz Mesmer
19th Century
Pioneered Use in Medical Field
James Braid
Used during Civil War
History of Hypnosis
Pace & lead: stare at image
Visualization: calming memory
Instant induction: startling/scaring
Sleep preparation: 'take a deep breath'
Mimicry: explain process
Metaphor: word association
Conversational: long droning lecture
Hypnotic gaze: stare into eyes
Affirmation: repeat short phrase
Self induction
Erotic induction...?
20th century
Become increasingly practical and regarded as a useful tool
Pierre Janet & Clark Hull
Emile Coue'
Milton Erickson
Dave Elman

20th Century/21st Century
21st century
Follow the same practices led by Erickson and Elman
Brief , solution-focused practice, using rapid or indirect techniques, and totally guided by the client

Populations that Utilize Hypnotism
Uses in Healthy Population
Clinical Application
Hypnotism Portrayal in Pop Culture
Over the top
"mind control"
Long lasting
Lack of free will
Stage Hypnosis is hypnosis performed in front of an audience for the purposes of entertainment, usually in a comedy club or theater.

Medical is performed privately in a therapist's office or the office of a trained professional
Medical vs. Entertainment
Who does hypnosis?
American Association of Professional Hypnotherapists (AAPH)
American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH)
What is the Cost?
$120-$250 per. session
Does Health Insurance cover it?
Some health insurances cover it, under ‘counseling’ but others will not, depends on what kind of health insurance you have.
What are it's Clinical Applications?
Stage Hypnotism
Stage hypnotism is merely the power of deception and suggestion, like a magic trick.

People who volunteer generally go along with the show anyway.
According to the American Psychological Association's Div. 30 (Society of Psychological Hypnosis), hypnosis is a procedure during which a health professional or researcher suggests while treating someone, that he or she experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts or behavior. Although some hypnosis is used to make people more alert, most hypnosis includes suggestions for relaxation, calmness and well-being. Instructions to imagine or think about pleasant experiences are also commonly included during hypnosis. People respond to hypnosis in different ways. Some describe hypnosis as a state of focused attention, in which they feel very calm and relaxed. Most people describe the experience as pleasant.
• Arthritis
• Cancer
• Hot Flashes
• Fibromyalgia
• Migraine & Tension headaches
• Irritable bowel syndrome
Gut Journal Study- 2003
-204 study subjects
-12 weekly 1hr sessions
-58% men & 75% women experienced instant relief
-80% still 'cured' 8years later
Three Questions to ask when choosing Hypnotherapy:
Is this person a licensed health professional?
Does this person have formal training and significant experience in clinical hypnosis?

Does this person know the details of successful hypnosis treatment protocols for the condition?
Additional Indications for Use
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Chronic pain
Reducing Pain and Anxiety
Reducing the Frequency and Severity of Headaches
Controlling Bleeding and Pain during Procedures
May Improve Quality of Life
For Cancer Patient
Promoted to Change Undesirable Behaviors
Help Patients Overcome Fears
Can't Cure any Disease
Used in Place of Anesthesia
People are not under control of hypnotherapist
Cannot be hypnotized unless want to be
Patient gain more control over their behavior, emotions, and some physical processes
Success Depends upon whether the patient is willing and receptive to the idea of hypnosis
Risks & Concerns
Will I remember?
"Hypnosis is not a state of amnesia or of no awareness. Just the opposite true, in fact: hypnosis is a state of very heightened awareness and focus".
Finding a Real Hypnotherapist
"The only people qualified to treat your mental or physical problems with hypnosis, are those who are also qualified to treat the same problems without hypnosis"
Find someone who is associated with either the ASCH or AAPH
No therapist should make you cluck like a chicken.
Will I lose control?
Hypnosis is only effective if you let it be. There is a certain amount of ‘letting go’ and following the suggestions of the therapist. Saying that you are never not in control. You control your actions
Psychiatric Applications
When combined with normal therapeutic techniques, hypnotherapy has showed to improve overall results. Sample Itinerary:
Clinical Assessment
Behavioral Therapy
Relaxation training, producing somatosensory changes, demonstration of the power of the mind, expansion of awareness, ego-strengthening, self-hypnosis training and posthypnotic suggestions

A Study in 2005 found that cognitive-behavioral therapy coupled with hypnosis was more effective than either cognitive-behavioral therapy alone or supportive counseling for civilian trauma survivors and those with acute stress disorder.
National Institut of Health
Clinical Hypnosis in the Treatment of Post-Menopausal Hot Flashes: A Randomized Controlled Trial
-158 study subjects
-5 weeks 45min sessions
-73% reduction in hot flashes
Intentions to use Hypnosis to Control the Side Effects of Cancer and its Treatment
-115 study subjects- 70% women
-Imagery w/ relaxation suggestion
-suggestions for reduced fatigue, reduced skin toxicity, and reduced distress
-teach self hypnosis
-Less propofol, lidocain, & intensity of pain/side effect
Hypnosis should not be the only treatment used for severe medical or psychiatric conditions, or to treat severe addictions like opium.

Hypnosis has been shown to also improve with quitting smoking, but it should be noted that you must also want to quit.

Elkins, Gary R. "Hypnosis Today - Looking Beyond the Media Portrayal." Http://www.apa.org. American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, June 2004. Web. 03 Apr. 2014. <https://www.apa.org/topics/hypnosis/media.aspx>.
Elkins, Gary R., William I. Fisher, Aimee K. Johnson, Janet S. Carpenter, and Timothy Z. Keith. "Clinical Hypnosis in the Treatment of Post-Menopausal Hot Flashes: A Randomized Controlled Trial." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 01 Sept. 2005. Web. 03 Apr. 2014. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3556367/>.
Mason, David. " Hypnosis Induction Scripts." Hypnosis Induction Scripts. N.p., 31 Dec. 13. Web. 03 Apr. 2014. <http://www.key-hypnosis.com/Hypnotic-Inductions/Hypnosis-Inductions-Scripts.php>.
Montgomery, Guy H. "Hypnosis for Cancer Care: Over 200 Years Young." CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. NIH Public Access, Jan. 2013. Web. 3 Apr. 2014. <http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC3755455>.
Palsson, Olafur S. "Hypnosis for IBS." Hypnosis for IBS. IFFGD, 14 Mar. 14. Web. 03 Apr. 2014. <http://www.aboutibs.org/site/treatment/complementary-or-alternative-treatments/hypnosis>.
Sohl, Stephanie J., Lauren Stossel, Julie B. Schnur, Kristin Tatrow, Amfiana Gherman, and Guy H. Montgomery. "Intentions to Use Hypnosis to Control the Side Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 31 Mar. 2006. Web. 03 Apr. 2014. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3623680/>.
Stewart, J. H. "Hypnosis." Tests and Proceedures Hypnosis. Mayo Clinic, 20 Nov. 12. Web. 03 Apr. 2014. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/hypnosis/basics/definition/PRC-20019177?p=1>.
Alladin, Assen. "Evidence-based Cognitive Hypnotherapy for Depression." Contemporary Hypnosis 26.4 (2009): 245-62. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Mottern, Ron. "Using Hypnosis as Adjunct Care in Mental Health Nursing." Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services 48.10 (2010): 41-44. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
"Hypnosis FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions." Resources, Information and Continuing Education. AAPH, 2011. Web. 01 Apr. 2014.
Palsson, Olafur S., Psy.D. "Medical and Psychological Uses of Clinical Hypnosis. How Hypnosis Helps Health Problems like IBS. Article by Olafur S. Palsson, Psy.D." Medical and Psychological Uses of Clinical Hypnosis. How Hypnosis Helps Health Problems like IBS. Article by Olafur S. Palsson, Psy.D. IBShypnosis.com, 2005. Web. 01 Apr. 2014
Olmsted , Richard , L Zeltzer, and S LeBaron. "Hypnosis and nonhypnotic techniques for reduction of pain and anxiety during painful procedures in children and adolescents with cancer*." Journal of Pediatrics . 101.6 (1982): 1032-1035. Web. 4 Apr. 2014. <http://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476(82)80040-1/abstract>.
"From Magic Power to Everyday Trance." History of Hypnosis: Learn About the History of Hypnosis-a Fascinating Subject!. History of Hypnosis, (2012).Web. 4 Apr 2014. <http://www.historyofhypnosis.org/>.
"A Brief History of Hypnosis." About Hypnosis. AboutHypnosis.com, (2013). Web. 3 Apr 2014. <http://www.abouthypnosis.com/history-of-hypnosis.html>.
Ehrlich, S. "Hypnotherapy." University of Maryland Medical Center. URAC, 6 9 2011. Web. 3 Apr 2014. <http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/treatment/hypnotherapy>.
"Hypnosis ." American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society Inc., 1 11 2008. Web. 4 Apr 2014. <http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/complementaryandalternativemedicine/mindbodyandspirit/hypnosis>.
Smith , B. "Hypnosis Today." Monitor on Psychology. 42.1 50. Web. 4 Apr. 2014. <https://www.apa.org/monitor/2011/01/hypnosis.aspx>.
"Hypnosis in Other Cultures ." Hypnotist Finder.com. Hypnotist Finder, (2014). Web. 2 Apr 2014. <http://www.hypnotistfinder.com/culture.php>.
"Hypnotherapy, Hypnosis." Healthline. Healthline Networks, Inc. n.d. Web. 3 Apr 2014. <http://www.healthline.com/natstandardcontent/alt-self-hypnosis>.

Jury still out
No concrete evidence
Not a diagnosis tool
No adverse reactions
Not used as monotherapy
Best version Self Hypnosis
Pop culture interpretation may be limiting the potential of this alternative treatment
Jury still out
No concrete evidence
No a diagnostic tool
Not a monotherapy
No adverse side effects
Best option is self hypnosis
This may be a good option in addition to more traditional treatments, if the patient can afford it
Historically has been used across many cultures
Native Americans
Today: Western Culture is most popular
Chinese Medicine
Will I be in danger?
There are no known deaths under hypnosis, and no cases of anyone not being able to leave a hypnotic state.
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