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TOK Ways of Knowing
Transcript of TOK Ways of Knowing
An instrument to knowledge that shapes how we see and think. Acquiring knowledge through our 5 senses
Empiricism - the study of our sensory (or empirical) knowledge Emotion is defined as a reaction to a stimulus
It is inferred, not observed. For example, we can feel our own emotions but can only infer others.
It is a temporary experience due to a certain event, giving us an impulse to do something, which is a good definition for motivation. Reason It is the power of the mind to think, understand and make judgments logically. Weaknesses Translation
Emotions can be misinterpreted when trying to communicate them through language. Strengths Noam Chomsky - Language Acquisition Device (Basic Innate Grammar Understanding) "Without words that specifically denote a concept, the concept does not exist in mind” (Krishnan) If we are able to take a handful of children and put them alone on an Island... Will they develop their own language? Steven Pinker - Language is an instinct that is a
genetic and universal component of any human's brain.
He believed that people didn't think in language,
therefore it didn't shape our thoughts. John Locke Berkeley Allegory of Plato's Cave
Paradigms Weaknesses Mental construction of reality - you are seeing what your brain processes. If there are any gaps your brain can't process Locke's claim is that our thought and ideas issue from that which we have taken through the senses.
Before we sense anything, the mind is a bare and empty as a blackboard before the teacher arrives in the classroom. He said the only things that exists are those we perceive. But we do not perceive 'material' or 'matter'. We do not perceive things as tangible objects. We do not know if someone sees things the same way we do... Strengths We are able to perceive a picture of our surroundings, even if it is just light being processed by our brain, we can apply reason to our empirical evidence, leading to knowledge Language Perception Reason Emotion Strengths Weaknesses •Will deliver almost solid results.
•Based on true facts.
•Decide the truth.
•Recognizes that one exists. •Emotions may interfere with reason.
•Relies on language.
•Based on other WOKs.
•Fallacies Descartes, Hume, Kant Rene Descartes:
He questioned sense of perception. He created a new method to acquire knowledge. He believed that the only statement that is absolutely certain is “I exist”. He tried to prove God’s existence through reason. David Hume:
He believed that reason was heavily affected by human desires. He is known for being a skeptic . People can only form real beliefs of what extends beyond any human experience. Immanuel Kant:
He believed that our mind influences our experiences. He believed that human reason had a limit. Kant also believed that all humans are born with moral reason and a sense of duty. An error of reasoning rather than an actual error. - Ad Hominem
- Appeal for fear
- Correct premises, false statement
- False premises, true statement
- Factual error Strengths: - This way of knowing has examples to help back up ideas, especially examples of history and scientific experiments
- Attempts to discover the truth
- Helps make correct and true decisions
- Based on logic and analysis Weaknesses: - Neglects emotions such as fear, desire and hate and doesn't take in the powerful effect it can have on our lives
- Reason in a way is related to language and language too comes with it weaknesses, especially when translated
- Comes with flaws such as logical fallacy's
- The validity of an argument is independent of the truth/falsity of the premises it contains
- Generalizations Example Everyone has experienced a time when they say or write something that is different to the thought that they had in mind.
The thought was different to what was said.
There is difficulty in communication when a person attempts to convey their feelings or thoughts. Example Hard to believe that children learn through imitation because adults speech are usually irregular and ungrammatical.
Every language has complex distinctions. However, children have the ability to pick up their first language in the first 5 years.
Does this prove that children are born with a built-in device or that they are able to adapt to a situation that they are put in? Therefore, when you have an emotion, motivation is not far behind.
Fear = Escape
Anger = Attack
Drive of Hunger/Thirst = Eat/Drink Weaknesses "Emotions shape the landscape of our mental and social lives" - Martha Nussbaum Emotion is a filter to the other ways of knowing "Can we trust our emotions in he pursuit of knowledge?" - Our emotions block us from analyzing a situation, thus it can lead to us making wrong decisions
- Emotions cannot be measured on a scale
- Emotion seems to be a part of behavior yet it plays no unique role as it does just as much as behavior
- Emotions lead to generalizations that have no proof - Emotion can be understood in different ways by different people Robert Plutchik - Emotions can sometimes be mistaken to a motive because they both lead to an "impulse to do something" - Emotion weakens over time Guess the emotion( in a picture of example)