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Chapter 2: When Worlds Collide

1492-1590
by

Maggie Sehring

on 7 September 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 2: When Worlds Collide

CHAPTER 2:
When Worlds Collide 1492-1590 By Maggie Sehring Works Cited The
Expansion
of Europe The
Spanish
in the
Americas Northern
Explorations
and
Encounters European Communities Communities were mainly agricultural in Western Europe. As technology improved and land size increased, a greater surplus became available to support growing populations.
Society was labeled as patriarchal, with men doing the fieldwork and women tending to the house and livestock. Girls joined their husbands' families and received dowries after marriage but were not allowed inheritance and divorce was nonexistent.
Village peasants made up the majority of the population.
In Europe's feudal society, serfs labored vigorously under the leadership of the lord. Tribute was also required from the serfs, enabling wealth for the lord.
The Roman Catholic Church unified Europe as a common religion. It legitimized positions in society and taught of "heavenly rewards", despite their practice of persecution and discrimination against Jewish followers.
European life generally consisted of unpleasant living conditions, inadequate food, and fatal diseases such as the Black Death. The Merchant Class and New Monarchies The European economy recovered in the 14th and 15th centuries as technology advancements expanded commerce and the population improved after diseases.
Merchants formed alliances with the monarchs which aided overseas exploration and resulted in life changing discoveries. The Renaissance It began in the country of Italy where the city states controlled commercial activity in the Mediterranean Sea using armed ships.
Merchants supported the crusades with their goods, resulting in Italy's participation in the silk and spice trades. Europe was also opened up to Asian technology, such as gunpowder, the compass, and the movable type. Europe's adaptation to the new contact with Asia spurred economic growth.
The Renaissance began in the 14th century with access to Islamic ancient texts that went missing during the Dark and Middle Ages. It lasted through the 16th century, celebrating humanity using art, architecture, and literature. The Renaissance stressed secularism over spiritualism. Portuguese Exploration Portugal was the first European country to explore distant lands mainly because of the trading empire created by King Joao I. Merchants were very powerful in the nation which caused an exploration mindset to find new trade lands.
Prince Henry the Navigator created an academy for geography and exploration at Sagres Point. He and the scholars concluded that the Earth was not "flat" and they also invented the caravel (ship), made astronomical calculations, and produced the 1st tables of declination (sun and star position).
The country explored northwestern Africa in search for gold and slaves. Then, in 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded the tip of Africa and Vasco da Gama arrived in India in 1498. There they established a spice trade empire along the south Asian coast. Columbus Reaches the Americas Christopher Columbus' idea of sailing west to reach the Indies was denied by the Portuguese, French, and English before it was accepted by Isabel and Ferdinand of Spain. He had imperialistic ideas of conquering land and establishing trade routes for Spain.
Columbus reached the Bahamas in October of 1492. Believing that he arrived in the Indies, he returned to Spain with Tainos (natives) and gold to announce his success and his discovery of the Atlantic currents.
Columbus returned to search for gold and to colonize the island. Violent means of colonization led to a steep decline in the native population and later the elimination of all Tainos. Columbus was eventually jailed in 1500 for creating a colony that could not sustain itself.
Even after two future voyages, Columbus believed to his death that he had reached the Indies. Amerigo Vespucci was the first to announce that the "Indies" were actually a "New World", later named "America". The Invasion of America Spanish explorers enforced a system of "encomienda" in the Caribbean islands to exploit the natives for the use of labor.
Next they invaded Jamaica and Puerto Rico (1508), Cuba and Central America (1511), and then encountered the Aztecs (1517).
Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed Panama reaching the Pacific Ocean in 1513.
The Aztecs were a warlike society with a capital at Tenochtitlan in Mexico. 200,000 people lived in the capital, making it a very powerful empire.
Henry Cortes landed in Mexico in 1519. He conquered the Aztecs within two years through alliances with Aztec rival tribes. In the meantime, the Aztec people were suffering with the smallpox epidemic, weakening their empire. The Destruction of the Indies Antonia de Montesinos and Bartolome de Las Casas both condemned the violence by supporting unity of humanity. However, their preaches were ignored.
Las Casas published "The Destruction of the Indies" in 1552 to blame Spain for the millions of Indian deaths. Other countries covered up their own wrongdoings by denouncing Spain, producing the "Black Legend " of Spanish colonization.
Las Casas blamed the millions of Indian losses on warfare, though only thousands were a result of battle. The main causes of death were starvation, birthrate decline, and epidemic diseases. Intercontinental Exchange Disease was the most important continental exchange with the greatest impact.
Valuable metals were transported to Europe and used for coins causing inflation, stimulation of commerce, raised profits, and lower standards of living.
The exchange of crops had long-term importance, as potatoes, corn, tobacco, vanilla, chocolate, and cotton were brought to Europe and sugar, rice, and coffee were shipped to America.
Domesticated animals, such as horses, were introduced to the Americas as well. The First Europeans in North America The governor of Puerto Rico, Ponce de Leon, landed in North America in 1513 and named the spot "Florida" before his death in 1521.
Panfilo de Narvaez followed in 1528, but a shipwreck left a small group of survivors wandering the Gulf Coast until they were found by Spanish slave hunters. One surviver described golden cities in an empire of Cibola. Hernando de Soto searched for these cities in 1539 but his efforts met resistance and failed.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado led another expedition with no success, making Spain lose interest in the Southwest. The Spanish New World Empire 100 years after Columbus' arrival, 250,000 Europeans and 125,000 African slaves settled the Spanish plantations in the Caribbeans and the Portuguese plantations in Brazil.
The Americas were divided between Spain and Portugal by the pope in the agreement known as the Treaty of Tordesillas.
About 10% of immigrants were women. Most men married native or slave women, resulting in mixed groups known as mestizos and mulattoes.
The empire was considered to be a centralized, bureaucratic system. However, the Council of the Indies was located in Spain causing a lot of local decision making. Fish and Furs Before the founding of colonies in the North, fisherman had been exploring the coast for available resources. The Great Banks of Newfoundland were noted for having a plentiful amount of cod and many ships sailed there after 1500.
In 1497, Giovanni Caboto, a Genovese native exploring for England, reached Labrador but no one followed.
Giovanni da Verrazano, a Tuscan captain sailing for France, explored from Cape Fear, NC to Penobscot, ME.
Captain Cartier claimed the lands of Canada for the French but failed to do so with the St. Lawrence.
Fur trade was a major part of New France's success and the Indians were involved as well. The trade was a great advantage for Europeans, as Indians were affected by disease, warfare, and dependence on European goods.
In the early 17th century, the French tried to monopolize trade by forming colonies on the coast and on the St. Lawrence. The Protestant Reformation and the First French Colonies The Protestant Reformation began in 1517 under the leadership of Martin Luther, challenging the Catholic church to return to its purer practices and beliefs that were in place earlier.
John Calvin developed the idea of predestination, the thought that God had already planned which humans would achieve salvation. His followers were called Huguenots and they were mainly French merchants and people of middle class.
150 Protestants, or European supporters of religious reform, joined Jean Ribault in 1562 and colonized Parris Island. It failed, however, when Ribault returned to France for supplies. In 1564, Ribault made a second attempt at colonization in Fort Caroline, FL.
Spanish captain and general of the Indies, Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles, crushed the Huguenots and established the "oldest continuously occupied European city in North America", St. Augustine. Sixteenth-Century England The "New World" inflation caused Lords in England to domesticate sheep for wool trade in order to make more money. They moved a great number of farmers and their families off land and they relocated into the crowded English cities for employment.
In 1534, King Henry VIII of England converted to the Church of England and declared himself as the head. He also made alliances with the wealthy merchant class by receiving support for a strong state system, an army, and a navy in exchange for titles, offices, lands, and commercial favors for the merchants.
Henry VIII was succeeded by Edward VI, Mary (nicknamed "Bloody Mary" for killing Protestants), and Elizabeth I.
Elizabeth practiced religious toleration, a method against the beliefs of the Spanish monarch. Fearing violent actions from the Spanish, Elizabeth sent Walter Raleigh, Humphrey Gilbert, and other commanders to take Ireland. The Irish fought back viciously and earned the title of the "wild Irish". They were seen as "savages" in the English eye. Early English Efforts in America Englishman John Hawkins violated Spanish trade laws with the Caribbeans and was attacked on one of his later voyages. England retaliated by raiding Spanish ports and fleets in the new world. This began their quest for colonization in the Americas.
Colonies in the Americas would enable the English to raid the Caribbean, provide outposts for an Indian market, supply plantations for tropical crops, and offer homes for the homeless.
Gilbert established a colony at Newfoundland but did not return to his home country. After his death, Raleigh established a colony at Roanoke but that too failed.
Thomas Harriot and John White gave the best description of North American Indians during European contact through "A Briefe and True Report of the Newfound Land of Virginia".
Unlike the French, the English attempted to conquer the natives as they tried with the Irish.
The Spanish were upset with the English for trespassing into Catholic territory. When they attempted to invade the British Isles, English captains defeated them and ended the Spanish monopoly in the New World. Picture Sources Chapter 2: When Worlds Collide. (2011). Retrieved August 31, 2012, from APUSH Note Site: Out of Many AP Edition: https://sites.google.com/a/pftsta.jppss.k12.la.us/apush-note-site/


Chapter 02 - When Worlds Collide. (2012). Retrieved August 31, 2012, from Course Notes: http://www.course-notes.org/us_history/notes/out_of_many_3rd_edition_notes/chapter_02_when_worlds_collide

Faragher, B. C. (1995-2010). Chapter 2: When Worlds Collide, 1492-1590 . Retrieved August 30, 2012, from Out of Many: A
History of the American People: http://wps.prenhall.com/hss_faragher_outofmany_5/

Faragher, B. C. (2011). Out of Many, 6th Edition. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. history.blinkweb.com

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