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Transcript of Toulmin Arguments
Argument Who was Toulmin? Lived -2009 Who was Toulmin? Lived 1922-2009 Philosophy of Science teacher at Oxford Author of The Uses of Argument (1958) Thought that reason should be practical What are s? Who was Stephen Toulmin? Lived 1922-2009 Taught Philosophy of Science at Oxford Author of The Uses of Argument (1958) Thought reason should be practical Claims Statements, not Questions Debatable and Controversial Don’t argue about points people agree on. Sometimes what is and isn’t debatable is hard to determine. Consider what effect your point has on an audience. Good claims come from personal experiences. Reasons and Good Evidence You always need supporting evidence and reasons to prove your claim. Without reasoning, a claim is just a weak and lonely statement. Evidence can be provided through
several different means such as: Personal Experience: I feel happier and healthier when I run everyday. Anecdotes: My 85 year old grandfather excercises on a regular basis and
has is in really good health. Authorities: Doctors recommend at least 15 minutes of physical activity per day. Example: If your claim is “Physical activity is beneficial to a healthier life”, you must have evidence to support this.
Continue reasoning and researching until you have enough evidence to make a strong argument.
Rarely all you will need to make a valid argument is your “reason and claim” statement. Often your audience will begin to question you.
Be prepared for challenges against your claim!
Facts: Exercise increases energy levels and serotonin in the brain, which leads to improved mental clarity. Warrants Warrants connect evidence and reasons to the claim. Obvious and Unstated Lead the evidence to the claim Claims Reasons SINCE SO SINCE SO Fuzzy Wuzzy had no hair. Reason Warrant Claim Things without hair aren't fuzzy. Fuzzy Wuzzy wasn't very fuzzy, was he? Um-berellas keep people dry. We should share my um-berella, ella, ella, hey, hey, hey. It's rainin', rainin', oh baby, it's rainin'. SINCE SO Reason Warrant Claim SINCE SO Reason Warrant Claim This Prezi is boring. Stephen should make a sarcastic comment. Sarcasm will make people pay attention. Icons and images can also show claims, reasons, and warrants. Backing evidence to support a warrant (or claim) - Logic Emotion Ethics so homework should be made illegal Government has an obligation to protect the people from harm, since homework is harmful to one's health. Claim Reason Warrant Backing or or can be The average high school kid today has the same level of anxiety as the average psychiatric patient in the early 1950s.
The stress homework causes can lead to heart disease, obesity, depression, and autoimmune diseases.
Congress passed the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act to reduce the number of people affected by the equally unhealthy act of smoking. logic ethics emotion Appeals to ETHOS will boost your argument. Toulmin Arguments Argue a CLAIM REASONS support claim WARRANT tells why BACKING reinforces warrants and claims