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Introducing the DPSIR concept

Anja Müller

on 14 August 2014

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Transcript of Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response

Forces Pressures States Impacts Responses stands for:
Driving Force
Response DPSIR Framework:
invented by the dutch National Institue of Public Health and Environment in association with the European Environment Agency [EEA]
used by the EEA since 1999 to structure thinking about the interplay between the environment and socio-economic activities
it formalises the relationships between various sectors of human activity and the environment as causal chain of links Response Driving Force Pressure State Impact introducing the Framework factors that cause changes in or lead the behavior of a system
describe large-scale socio-economic conditions and sectoral trends
natural or human induced
direct or indirect generate quality of
air - pollution caused by burning of fossil fuels
water - eutrophication
soil - nitrogen leakage due to intensive agriculture ecosystems humans changes in landuse excessive use of environmental resources emissions of chemichals to air, water and soil a tool that helps to identify and describe processes and interactions in human–environmental systems
a conceptual framework for structuring and communicating policy-relevant research about the environment
a model for illustrating environmental impacts and conservation methods PSR: Pressure-State-Response
developed in the 1970's by the canadian statistician Anthony Fried
adopted and enhanced by the
good basis for the explanation of mainly environmental issues
simplifies complex relations to one-to-one linkages
used by the OECD member countrys as a common reference framework DSR:Driving Force-State-Response
focuses on human demands and activities that affect the natural system
analytical approach used by the UNCSD
describes social-environmental interrelations
does not consider further components affects has an leads to influence on the system
human demand for goods and services,
for good health and social relations
security, education, freedom changing the conditions of direct drivers of the system
demographical development
economic and social conditions
state of the environment or political situation basis to assess the kind and degree of pressures on the system first consequences of driving forces, often linked to them
in general: all human activities affecting the environment
identification and measuring easier compared to Driving Forces emissions of waste more examples:
acidification as a result of SO2-emissions
noise levels and exposures
biodiversity loss, habitat fragmentation e.g. degradation of usable land leads to a decreased provision of ecosystem services
pollution of soil and water can cause serious diseases and high restoration cost
biodiversity loss
increasing diseases depending on
the area of application (environmental/social/economic)
the temporal and spatial context
the available options and instruments typical instruments legislative procedures
e.g. laws, production standards planning market- or public-oriented istruments
taxes, bills, subventions cooperation, participation information, education D:
growing population P:
landuse for housing and
roads S:
noise levels and exposure I: human health possible Responses:
reduce noise levels
restrict building the quality of the various environmental compartments (air, water, soil, etc.) in relation to the functions that these compartments fulfil
observable changes of environmental conditions
result of pressures the existing problems arising from the change detected in State variables, which are reducing the value (in quantitative, economic or qualitative terms) of the natural resource
environmental/economic effects on the functioning of ecosystems and consequences for their life-supporting abilities
influence on human health and on the economic and social performance of society can affect any part of the chain between driving forces and impacts
ideally, they should take effect on the driving forces and the pressures and thus, improve the environmental state population transport industry agriculture a result of production and consumption processes
can be divided into three main types focus on anthropocentric pressures and responses for evaluation of environmental problems - problematic, because it tends to push aside natural variability both are not adressing to the underlying reasons for pressures
do not deal with the motivations behind responses to changes in the state of the environment but: original goal identify appropriate indicators for measurement and evaluation of environmental problems, not the elaboration of cause–effect relationships that lead to these problems barriers to consideration of local issues may create contradictions and do not encourage examination of locally-specific reasons for individual decisions Core set indicators - Issue: Waste
-Generation of: municipal/industrial/ hazardous/nuclear waste
-Movements of hazardous waste
-Effects on water and air quality; effects on
land use and soil quality; toxic contamination
-Waste minimisation Recycling rates
-Economic and fiscal instruments, expenditures in 2004 publishing of the first report of key environmental indicators result of a undesired impact
demonstrate the efforts by society (e.g. politicians, decision makers) to solve the problems identified by the assessed impacts possible levels of intervention critisicm http://cchronicle.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/agriculture.jpg http://www.ek-suedfrucht.com/uploads/tx_eggerinfos/transport.jpg http://www.kpua.net/images/2006hoolaulea/crowd2_full.jpg http://www.suedlicher-oberrhein.ihk.de/linkableblob/846182/data/Umwelt_Industrie_24-data.jpg http://www.neilpeterson.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/co2-emissions.jpg http://www.rowthree.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/WasteLand2.jpg http://lh3.ggpht.com/_2vGIpngAD6A/RyYrHUwLEYI/AAAAAAAAAcI/im80wmhEezM/Deforestation.jpg http://madebypakistan.com/2011/02/fishery-in-pakistan/ thank you for listening

questions? in 2003, the EEA published the first core set of environmental indicators
allows international organisations to work together on a common approach to avoid duplication and to use the same indicators for many purposes where are similar needs Driving forces are purely perceived as external forces damaging the area or species that need protection
should be socio-economic and cultural processes that are integrated with developments in biodiversity
there is no deeper understanding of societies and cultures in which responses have to be effected and the conflicts they may arise
results from analyses based on the DPSIR framework tends to reproduce particular discursive positions Svarstad et al.: formation of a basis of static indicators, the system dynamics cannot be taken into account
system cannot handle cause-consequence relationships
suggestion of linear unidirectional causal chains
environmental trends can be analysed only by repeating the indicator reports at regular intervals Carr et al.: Rekolainen et al.: in macroeconomic context: structured according to economic sectors exceptional importance for management and
decision making - directly illustrating environmental and societal consequences of human actions Applying DPSIR to sustainable development
Edward R. Carr, Philip M.Wingard, Sara C. Yorty, Mary C. Thompson, Natalie K. Jensen and Justin Roberson
Department of Geography, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
released in: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 14 (2007) 543–555

Technical report No 25 - Environmental indicators: Typology and overview
Prepared by: Edith Smeets and Rob Weterings (TNO Centre for Strategy, Technology and Policy, The Netherlands).
Project Managers: Peter Bosch, Martin Büchele and David Gee
European Environment Agency

Technical report EEA core set of indicators Revised version April 2003
Compiled by: Peter Kristensen, April 2003
Project Manager: Anita Pirc-Velkavrh & Peter Kristensen

Socio-economic indicators and integrated coastal management
Robert E. Bowen*, Cory Riley
Environmental, Coastal and Ocean Sciences (ECOS), University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA 02125, USA
in Elsevier Ocean & Coastal Management 46 (2003) 299–312

B Burkhard and F Müller. Driver–Pressure–State–Impact–Response. In Sven Erik Jørgensen
and Brian D. Fath (Editor-in-Chief), Ecological Indicators. Vol. [2] of Encyclopedia
of Ecology, 5 vols. pp. [967-970] Oxford: Elsevier.

From the DPSIR reporting framework to a system for a dynamic and integrated decision making process
C. Giupponi, Università di Padova, Italy and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Venice, Italy,
published on MULINO Conference on “European policy and tools for sustainable water management”
21-23 November, Venice (Italy)

OECD KEY ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS 2008 by the OECD Environment Directorate Paris, France

Discursive biases of the environmental research framework DPSIR
Hanne Svarstad, Lars Kjerulf Petersen, Dale Rothman, Henk Siepel, Frank Wätzold
Received 7 July 2006; received in revised form 5 October 2006; accepted 26 March 2007

OECD KEY ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS 2004 by the OECD Environment Directorate Paris, France

The DPSIR Framework by Peter Kristensen, National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark
Department of Policy Analysis, European Topic Centre on Water, European Environment Agency
Paper presented at the 27-29 September 2004 workshop on a comprehensive / detailed
assessment of the vulnerability of water resources to environmental change in Africa using
river basin approach. UNEP Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya

lecture "human environmental systems" ppt-Presentation by Benjamin Burkhardt, Mai 2011

A conceptual framework for identifying the need and role of models in the implementation of the
Water Framework Directive - SEPPO REKOLAINEN*, JUHA KÄMÄRI and MARJUKKA HILTUNEN, Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE),
,Helsinki, Finland, published in Intl. J. River Basin Management Vol. 1, No. 4 (2003), pp. 347–352 1. development 2. components 3. examples 4. criticism
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