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Greek Mythology

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Scarlett Schwarz

on 3 July 2015

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Transcript of Greek Mythology

English Presentation - June 2015
Greek Mythology
Greek mythology started when the ancient Greeks tried to explain the creation of the world, as well as how and why it worked. They theorized the existence of gods, Titans, mythological creatures and realms, and more and turned their theories into a religion. They built temples for, offered up sacrifices to and prayed to the gods in which they believed, thus constituting polytheism. It is to be noted that the Greek Gods are akin to the Roman Gods. One might conclude that this is because of the countries' geographical placement at the time.
The Creation of the World (according to the Greeks)
Gods and Goddesses of Greek Mythology
The Family Tree
Zeus is the
child of Chronus and Rhea
. He is the god of the sky, air and lightning and is
married to Hera
, the goddess of goddesses, women and marriage. In mythology, he is
well-known for being unfaithful to his wife
, resulting in godly or heroic, mortal
offspring, as in Apollo, Artemis, Perephone, the Muses, Perseus and so forth
. His legitimate offspring consists of Ares, Heba and Hephaesteus. He is
one of the "Twelve Olympians"
and presides over them. His rule becomes apparent in one of his many titles,
"King of the Gods"
The Greek gods and goddesses were
part of the Greeks' explanation for the seasons, human emotions, the weather, etc.
Minor deities were responsible for lesser things, as how the echo is lesser than war or how flowers are lesser than spring, how a single river is lesser than the ocean or how night is lesser than the sky. Emotions were given to the various minor deities as well, i.e.
, the goddess of retribution/indignation,
, the goddess of happiness or
, god of jealousy. Many of the
minor deities only "helped" the major ones
, for example:
is the goddess of love and beauty, the minor deities for example
a god of love or
a goddess of beauty. Thus they must
share their duties
, practically being minions to the major deities, sometimes voluntarily and sometimes not. Similar situations are to be observed with
, the god of war,
, the goddess of the hunt, moon and nursing, or her brother
, god of the sun, music, healing and herding. In this section, we will describe each of the "Twelve Olympians"-
Poseidon, Zeus, Hermes, Ares, Hephaestus, Apollo, Aphrodite, Hera, Demeter, Artemis and Athena
- as well as
in turn.
Hades with Persephone
Poseidon is the
child of Chronus and Rhea
. He is the god of the sea, storms, horses and earthquakes and is
married to Amphitrite, a Nereid and ancient sea-goddess
, daughter of Nereus and Doris. His legitimate children are Triton, Benthesikyme and, possibly, Rhode.
He is the
brother of Zeus and Hades
one of the "Twelve Olympians"
. He is said to have fathered many of the Ancient Greek heroes, for example Theseus or Hippothoon, and is known to have had
male mortal lovers
, an uncommon trait amongst the deities of the Ancient Greeks.
Locked out of Heaven - Hephaestus
One of the many myths concerning Poseidon speaks of a
competition between Athena and Poseidon
for the patronage of the city Athens. It was agreed that each of them would
present one gift to the Athenians
. Then the people would accept the patronage of the deity with the greater gift.
Athena offered the olive tree
Poseidon offered a salt-water spring
. The people and their king agreed that the olive tree was of greater use and
accepted Athena's patronage
. Infuriated,
Poseidon flooded the city
as compensation for his loss.
Dionysus is the
child of Zeus and his dead lover Semele.
He is the god of the grape harvest, wine making, wine, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, theater and pleasure and is
married to Ariadne, daughter of King Minos of Crete and "Mistress of the Labyrinth"
. His legitimate children are Oenopion, Staphylus, Thoas, Peparethus, Phanus, Eurymedon, Euanthes, Latramys, Tauropolis and Ceramus. He is
one of the "Twelve" Olympians
and is known for
inducing madness
in those that would defy him or incur his wrath. Among his most devoted followers were the
Unknown beings...
The Muses
The Maenads
The Maenads are
women who have been driven mad by Dionysus
and perform
strange dances and rituals
in an ecstatic frenzy. When they are in this state, dressed in
ceremonial attire
, they
often mutilate
the animals of the forest and -occasionally- the mortals lured to the forest by Dionysus, in most brutal and merciless ways.
The Muses are the
nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne
, memory personified. They are the
source of knowledge
inspiration of literature, science and the arts
Domain: Epic poetry
Emblem: Writing tablet
Domain: History
Emblem: Scrolls
Domain: Song and elegiac poetry
Emblem: Aulos
Domain: Lyric poetry
Emblem: Cithara
Domain: Tragedy
Emblem: Tragic mask
Domain: Hymns
Emblem: Veil
Domain: Dance
Emblem: Lyre
Domain: Comedy
Emblem: Comic mask
Domain: Astronomy
Emblem: Globe/Compass
Apollo is the
child of Zeus and Leto, daughter of the Titans of the Sun and Moon
, and
twin brother of the virgin goddess Artemis
. He is the god of the sun, truth, prophecy, light, plague, medicine, oracles, archery,
knowledge, music, healing and herding. Whil
e Apollo
has never married
, he has had many consorts...and children. Some of his well-known
consorts include his cousins Calliope, Muse of epic poetry, Thalia, Muse of comedy, and(possibly) Hecate, goddess of magic
, crossroads, moon, ghosts and necromancy. He is
one of the "Twelve Olympians"
and, like Poseidon, has been known to have had
male lovers
, for example Hyacinth or Cyparissus. One of his symbols is the lyre, a cross between a harp and a guitar, and was created by Hermes just for his sake.
The lyre
was used by the Ancient Greeks to accompany recitations.
Hephaestus is the
child of Hera and Zeus
. He is the god of fire, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals, metallurgy and blacksmithing and is
married to Aphrodite
, the goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, sexuality and procreation. His title is
"Blacksmith of the Gods"
according to the duty he takes upon himself and he is known to
work together with Athena
in her domain, helping teach the arts to the Greeks. He is also known to have given skill to chosen men. In honor of their companionship, Athena had various temples adorned with statues of Hephaestus. He is her equivalent amongst the male gods, but, unlike her, he is
not respected by the other Olympians or deities
. This is mostly because of his
and ugly, gruff appearance. he is also
one of the "Twelve Olympians"
He is the
child of Zeus and the Pleiade Maia
. He is the god commerce, trade, athletes, herdsmen, invention, orators, wit, literature, poets, border crossings, thieves, sports and travel and is
married to Hecate, the goddess of magic, crossroads, moon, ghosts and necromancy
, though he has had many affairs with many children. He is one of the "Twelve Olympians" and the only one, aside from Hades, Persephone and her lovers, who
can enter and leave the Underworld safely
and at will. This is because he is the
"Messenger of the Gods"
and thus has free passage to any place. His reputation is that of a
trickster and thief
. A few of his lovers are Aphrodite, Daeira the Oceanid and Urania, Muse of Astronomy.
Ares is the
legitimate child of Zeus
with his wife, Hera. He is the god of chaotic war and isn't married, unlike most of the other Olympians(except Apollo). However, he has an
ongoing affair with his cousin Aphrodite
and has had children with his other cousin, Calliope, Muse of epic poetry, and many others. In his
military excursions against Athena, he always lost
. Because of the constant unnecessary bloodshed, the Greeks were
ambivalent(zwiespältig) towards him
so, though they often worshiped him, especially as the
God of Manliness
, they were fearful of him and his brutal ways.
Hera is the
daughter of Chronus and Rhea
. She is the goddess of goddesses, women and marriage and is
married to her brother Zeus
. She is known for
persecuting Zeus's various lovers
, seeking to punish them for their trespassing against the sacred bond of marriage, especially ag
ainst herself, the goddess thereof. She is the most loyal of wi
ves among goddesses, having only a few stories depicting her as unloyal concerning Hephaestus' creation, although the general populace agrees that she has
never committed adultery
. She is one of the "Twelve Olympians" and is well respected amongst them.
Hesoid, a Greek poet, first wrote the widely accepted creation myth in his poem Theogony. Here is his theory:
It all started with nothingness, Chaos, out of which some divine beings sprung forth; Gaia, Eros (Love), the Abyss (Tartarus), and Erebus. Gaia gave birth to Uranus without male assistance and then married him, giving birth to twelve legitimate children; six males(Coeus, Crius, Cronus, Hyperion, Iapetus, and Oceanus) and six females(Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Rhea, Theia, Themis, and Tethys). Chronus was their last Titan child, after which Gaia gave birth to the cyclopes and the Hecatonchires(the Hundred-Handed ones). Uranus exiled and hated these children, though, and Gaia soon plotted against him, revolted by his bad parenting, care of her as his wife and exile of his children. Chronus was able to kill Uranus through deception and ruled boundlessly. Reacting to a prophecy of being thrown over by one of his children, he swallowed every one of his infant children, whereupon his sister-wife Rhea was angered. She hid her next child Zeus and gave her husband a rock swaddled in blankets to swallow, successfully deceiving him.
After Zeus had become a young man on the island of Crete, he went to Chronus to release his siblings. Rhea had convinced Chronus' to let Zeus be his cup-bearer and, when the time was right, Chronus drank a potion made by Metis, jhfd, which made him regurgitate Zeus' siblings and the rock. War was waged between the Titans and the gods with the exception of the Titans Prometheus, Oceanus and Epimetheus. Atlas became the leader of the Titans and when the Titanomachy ended with the gods' victory(with the help of their brethren: the cyclopes and the Hundred-Handed ones), all of the Titans who had fought against them were cast into Tartarus and Atlas was forced to carry the weight of the sky on his shoulders.
Gaia became angry that her children had yet again become imprisoned and gave birth to Typhon, the most deadly monster ever created, but Zeus subdued this creature and buried it under Mount Etna.
Soon after, humans were created by the gods as a source of amusement(along with animals, plants,...) and mankind started its journey to greatness.

Aphrodite is the
child of Zeus and Dione, an oracular Titaness(birth scenario 1)
. However,
others claim
that, when Kronos cut of Uranus' genitals and threw them in the sea, she
came forth from the sea foam, a full-fledged woman(birth scenario 2)
. She is the
goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, sexuality and procreation
and is
forcibly married to Hephaestus
by Zeus. In one version, this is because, since she had
great sexual appeal
to the male deities, most notably the male Olympians, there was fear of a war amongst the gods on her behalf and so Zeus decreed her to be married to Hephaestus. She has an
ongoing affair with Ares
. According to her domain(and her unhappy marriage), she has had many lovers, including Ares(obviously), Hermes, Dionysus and Adonis, Phoenician demigod of beauty and desire. She is one of the "Twelve Olympians" and
punishes insubordinate mortals by making them fall in love with family members
, i.e. son and mother, brother and sister, etc..
Athena is the
child of Zeus
. The myth surrounding her birth claims that, after Zeus had laid with Metis, the goddess of crafty thought and wisdom, he grew fearful on behalf of a prophecy stating that his child or children with her would be extremely powerful. Worry of being overthrown led him to swallow the already pregnant woman as his father had done to his children as well. However, upon having a headache, Athena
emerged from Zeus' skull, dressed for battle and fully grown(birth)
Athena is the mighty
goddess of wisdom, poetry, courage, inspiration, civilization, law and justice, mathematics, strength, war strategy, the arts, crafts and skill
. She is
one of the 3 virgin Olympian goddesses
: Hestia, Artemis and herself. She
oversees the quests of heroes
and guides such when in need.
Artemis is the
child of Zeus and Leto, daughter of the Titans of the Sun and Moon
, and
twin sister of Apollo
. She is the
goddess of the moon, hunting, archery, wild animals, virginity, nursing and wilderness
and, like her brother, has never married. However, she has also never had a consort, being
one of the three virgin goddesses of Olympus
. In the Trojan war, she was a
strong supporter of Troy
, seeing as her brother was patron of the city of Troy and she herself was greatly worshipped in such area. Source of the Trojan War is said to be an argument between the goddesses Hera, Aphrodite and Artemis. Eris, goddess of discord and strife, threw an apple bearing the inscription "To the fairest of them all" into a party to which everyone but herself had been invited. The three goddesses asked Paris which of them was worthy and, after some indecision, decided to bribe him. Upon Paris' decision of Aphrodite being worthy of the apple, deeming her bribe to him being the best(the most beautiful woman in all the land), the Trojan war commenced and Paris was killed in the slaughter, albeit not after killing Achilles with a skilled shot at his heel with the help of his bow and arrow. Artemis is
one of the "Twelve Olympians"
has a party of hunting attendants, all girls sworn to chastity
, that help her hunt the monsters appearing in Greek mythology.
Hestia is the
child of Chronus and Rhea
. She is the
goddess of the hearth, hospitality, domesticity, architecture, fertility, family, the state and the home
. In the Homeric hymn to Aphrodite, she is mentioned as the "first to be devoured . . . and the last to be yielded up again". It can thus be deduced that she is the
eldest sister of the first generation of Olympians
. Her siblings, accordingly, are Poseidon, Zeus, Hades, Hera and Demeter. She is often called
"The Forgotten Goddess"
and is almost never mentioned. There is a myth which tells of her
sacrificing her status as an Olympian and giving her throne to Dionysus
. She is the most humble and kind Olympian and, in deference to her,
of any sacrifice to any deity, she is first given a small portion
, a sign of respect as she is the firstborn of the 1st generation of Olympians, the eldest of all of them.
Demeter is the
child of Chronos and Rhea. She is the goddess of the harvest, sacred law, agriculture, fertility and the cycle of life and death
is not married
. However, she is
not a virgin
either. She has had children with Zeus(Persephone), Poseidon, Iasion, Karmanor, Oceanus and Kriptolemus. She is known for being
protective of her daughter Persephone
hostile to Hades
for kidnapping her child and keeping her away from her mother for an alotted time every year. In mythology, she is almost always mentioned along with her daughter. She is a
very powerful
goddess, being
able to cause famine
and create or destroy life, so she has a certain sway over the other deities. The title
"Poppy Goddess"
refers to the poppies in myths which were interpreted as a sign of ressurection. Since Demeter has power over the circle of life and death itself, poppies slowly became her emblem on the behalf of human interpretation.
Hades is the
oldest male child of Chronus and Rhea
. He is
god of the dead and underground riches
and is
married to Persephone, Goddess of the Underworld and goddess of springtime
, vegetation and maidenhood. He is known for his famous kidnapping of Persephone and his
hostile relationship with Demeter
because of that. He is the
King of the Underworld
and thus is feared by his worshippers.
Few of them even dare to say his name for fear of him taking their lives, though he is not the embodiment of death. His followers
sacrifice black animals
to him and let their blood drip into a hole in the ground which is believed to trickle all the way down to the Underworld. During the sacrifice, the gaze is always averted.
In classical arts, Hades is only portrayed in the picture "The Rape of Persephone". He is known to be
cruel, but just
, according to the judges of the Underworld which he leaves to judge independently. He
has not committed adultery
, like Hera, though he did attempt to do so, chasing after the nymph Minthe of the river Cocitus. However, Persephone turned Minthe into the plant mint, thus preventing such an occurence.
forbade anyone to leave his realm or return a dead soul to the realm of the living
. None have ever succeeded, though a few have come close.
Persephone, goddess of springtime, vegetation and maidenhood, was picking flowers with the Oceanids, Artemis and
Athena when she was brutally
abducted by Hades with permission of her father Zeus
. He took her with him into the Underworl
d. This event was called "The Rape of Persephone" in
y. Demeter,
her mother, caused a great famine
in her despair until, finally,
Helios, the sun, told her what had happened
. Demeter does not reanimate the barren landsc
ape until Zeus finally steps in and demands Persephone's return on b
ehalf of the survival of mankind. Hades agrees, but first
tricks Persephone into eating some pomegranate seeds from the Underworld
. Thus, she must
stay in the Underworld for a third of each year
. Demeter restored the land, but made it barren when her daughter was not with her.
This is an origin story to explain the
Hephaestus was born by Hera via self-impregnation or an affair(however, this claim is made by very few) after Hera found out that Zeus was cheating on her yet again. When he was
born with a lame leg
Hera cast him from Olympus
disgusted by her son's hideousness
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und so weiter...
Thanks for listening!!!
Presented to you by Sydney Scarlett Ligon
Full transcript