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Factors of Human Development part1
Transcript of Factors of Human Development part1
Development part 1 Development is consist of systematic changes and continuities in the individual that occurs between conception to death or from womb to tomb. Causes of
Human Development Nature Nurture Heredity and Maturation Learning Prenatal Development: from conception to birth Human Development as a Science Human development is the study of the human cycle from conception to death. Genes are carriers of heredity information passed on from parents to offspring. Chromosomes are gene carriers. At conception, an organism has 23 pairs of them. This is how a chromosome looks like. Each parent will give their offspring 23 chromosomes each. Sex Determination X X X Y baby girl
(XX) baby boy
(XY) 23rd chromosome is the sex chromosome (gonosome) Determination of Twins Fraternal Twins (Non-identical, Dizygotic) conceived when two eggs were released and were fertilized by two sperms. Maternal Twins (Identical, Monozygotic) came from a single zygote that split during its early stage of development Genetic Defects Caused by an abnormality in the gene composition Turner's Syndrome genetic defect where a female possesses only one x chromosome results in stunted sexual development, visual agnosia, absence or retardation of secondary sex characteristics, webbing of the skin of the neck and infertility. Klinefelter's Syndrome excess of one unpaired chromosome appearing in the 23rd chromosome XXY- Associated with physical, sexual and mental retardation XYY- excessively large and aggressive males Down Syndrome caused by the presence of three 21st chromosome associated with a delay in cognitive ability and physical growth, and a particular set of facial characteristics Phenylketonuria an inherited disorder in which the enzyme that converts the amino acid phenylalanine is defective. results to damage in the central nervous system and mental retardation Stages of Prenatal Development Germinal Period:
Conception to week 2 Called the period of the ovum. After week 1, the zygote is made up of 100 to 150 cells. By the end of the second week, the mass of cell has attached to the uterine wall. Embryonic Period:
week 3 through 8 neural tube emerges,
arm and leg buds emerge during the 4th week
heartbeat starts, face and intestines appears at 5th week Fetal Period:
2nd to 9th month mature organs and muscles
mother feels fetus' movements
eyes and eyelids are formed
fine layer of hair, grasping reflex
7-9 months, fetus is longer and organs function well. End of Part 1. Thank you for listening.