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Miranda Harris

on 2 December 2013

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What is a DRA?
Why use a DRA?
Teachers can collect a lot of valuable data, like the following, from a DRA!
Does the student read a wide variety of literature?
Is the student reading fluently (orally)?
Does the student use multiple comprehension skills/strategies?

When does sequoyah Elementary use DRA?
4th grade teachers at Sequoyah Elementary only administer a DRA if the student performed below basic in literacy on the previous Spring's Benchmark testing. The one exclusion is when a student is new to the district.
I told my teacher that I wanted to administer a comprehensive assessment that measured fluency and comprehension and she suggested a DRA.
The DRA we selected was on a guided reading level 40.

Three... It's the Magic number!
With guidance from my observing teacher, I chose three students to assess.
- Matthew
Average performing student.
On current report card he earned low B's in literacy and a C in Math
- Gloria
Low performing in Literacy and Math scores. Performed at basic level in literacy on previous Benchmark testing.
dra RESults of the 3 students
Matthew scored a 76/128. This score is in the INTERMEDIATE DRA stage (scores 74-83). He is reading and comprehending on a 4th grade level.
Carter scored an 87/128. This score places him in the ADVANCING INTERMEDIATE DRA stage (scores 84-93). He is reading and comprehending on a 5th grade level.
Gloria scored a 73/128. This score places her in the EXTENDING DRA stage. SHe is reading on a 3rd grade level.

The Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) is a formal assessment used to determine a student's instructional level in reading.

- Carter
Gifted and Talented Student
Scores above average in EVERY subject
Background Information About Gloria
classroom Data
On the 1st 9 weeks report card, Gloria earned a 69 in language arts areas and an 76 in math.
She tested below proficiency on last year's Benchmark testing in Math and Language Arts areas.
Gloria's highest grades are in Social Studies. She especially enjoys learning about other cultures.
The music teacher told me that Gloria is gifted with an amazing voice!

Specialists Data

Gloria has an AIP. An Academic Intervention Plan is designed for students who are struggling in at least one subject area. Mrs. Eason explained it to me as a program that is not federally funded but is required for teachers to implement. 2 x a week struggling students meet with a different teacher for small group tutoring.
This website from the Arkansas Department of Education describes an AIP.
Gloria is mostly well behaved in the classroom.
She is usually unwilling to start on classwork and always needs some encouragement from the teacher to get her motivated.
Most of the time she is too quiet. She does not stay engaged with lessons. During whole group time, she doodles on her paper instead of paying attention.
She is also constantly reminded by Mrs. Eason to put her glasses on. It was such a problem in the beginning of the school year, that Mrs. Eason talked to Gloria's mother about keeping a pair at school.
Language/Cultural Information:
Gloria is the only African American student in Mrs. Eason's classroom.
The DRA story that she read is about the first day of school for a boy in a desegregated school.
Gloria was very concerned about the boy. At one point she asked me, "Why did white people hate black people?"

There is no language barrier to be reported.
Socioeconomic Data
Gloria comes from a low income family.
She qualifies for the free lunch program at school.
Sequoyah Elementary has a total of 429 students. 165 students qualify for free lunches. 30 students qualify for reduced lunches. This information comes from an excel spreadsheet from the following site:

Gloria is also a recipient of a program sponsored by the Arkansas Rice Depot that supplies low income students with backpacks full of food to take home over the weekend. Our local newspaper wrote an article about the program recently.
Gloria has lived in Russellville her entire life and has never changed schools. She rarely misses a school day either.
Family SUpport/involvement
Gloria lives with her mother and 7 siblings. Just recently her grandmother moved into their house too. Her father lives in Texas. He has fathered 19 children, and Gloria says that she doesn't see him anymore.
Her mother works two jobs to make ends meet, so Gloria is often looked after by older siblings and now her Grandmother. Gloria says that her mother does not have time to help her with homework. Her mother does contact Mrs. Eason by phone for parent-teacher conferences when needed.
Interpretation of test results
Day 1 of testing
Since my time in the classroom was limited, I divided the test into sections. The first part of the assessment is labeled DRA Student Reading Survey.
1. Wide Reading
Students list the books they have read in the last couple of months and books they are currently reading at school and at home. What do they like to read?
2. Self- Assessment/Goal-Setting
Students list what they do well as a reader and what they need to work on to become a better reader.
How can the student plan to improve reading skills?
RESULTS: 1.)Gloria listed 9 books that she has read in the past couple of months! She only listed one book that she is reading at home (which is brought home for homework).
2.) Gloria struggled with deciding what she does well as a reader. She did have a few ideas on how to improve her reading skills, like spend more time reading and writing, sounding out words that are unfamiliar, and using a dictionary to find vocabulary.
On the rubric she scored 6/8 on the DRA Engagement Score.
day 2 of testing
The teacher introduces the text to the students and then the student reads the first 6 paragraphs while the teacher marks any miscues as she reads aloud. The teacher must also note the student's fluency. This portion is timed and is measured in seconds.
Gloria also answered a question about the first 6 paragraphs. 1.)What might happen in this story? 2.) List several questions that you think might be answered as you read.
Results: Gloria read this passage in 120 seconds. She showed little expression while reading. Most of the time, she used longer, meaningful phrases. Her accuracy rate was 97% because her miscues included the omission of 3 words and 2 substitutions. Gloria earned 11/16 points on the DRA Oral Reading Score
Day 3 of testing
On day 3, Gloria read the story to herself and then wrote a summary. She was also instructed to complete comprehension and interpretation questions, a reflection question, and metacognitive awareness.
RESULTS:The scored 3's (Go Gloria!) on the summary and literal comprehension section. Her summary was included specific details and people. Her response to the literal was adequate also.
Where Gloria struggled the most was how she interpreted the story. Her answer to the question, What does Ray learn, was really far off from the story. Her reflection answer was vague and disconnected. Gloria also used only one strategy to show metacognitive awareness. Overall she scored 16/24 on the DRA Comprehension Skills/Strategies Score.
Overall tOTALS
DRA Text Level 40/80

DRA Reading Engagement Score 6/8
DRA Oral Reading Score 11/16
DRA Comprehension Skills/Strategies Score 16/24
Gloria Scored in the "Extending" DRA Stage, which means she is reading on a 3rd grade level.
Intervention #1
The one part of the DRA where Gloria's struggle is evident is in her use of comprehension strategies. She needs help with determining importance of texts.
While she is reading, I want Gloria to complete graphic organizers about the main idea and supporting details. An example of a graphic organizer would look like this. Gloria will write the main idea on top of the table and the legs represent the supporting detail. This GO can be used for fictional and informational texts too.
She needs help writing her questions down. She can discuss the questions but is not confident in writing down what she means.

intervention #2
Another way to help Gloria comprehend what she is reading is to have her write in Reading Logs. She should write about every book she is reading in class. She can write about connections she may have to the book, make predictions, draw inferences, write summaries, and evaluate what she is reading. One way that would make this intervention more interesting is to use an online reading log. There is an app available for students to use on their Ipads too.
intervention #3
Gloria scored a 2 on the Metacognitive Awareness section of the DRA. She marked that she uses similar experiences and stories to help her understand what she read. Her response was that this story reminded her of slavery. She did not provide any more details. She needs to think about her thinking more in order to improve these scores. I want to provide her with ample experiences to do this. One way is for her to answer these questions as she reads a story.
There should be some sort of
quick, formative assessment with
these questions to monitor her
metacognitive skills.
Intervention #3 continued
Another way to develop metacognitive skills is to use the strategy of visualizing. I want Gloria to use mental images she has while reading, to draw and write what she is reading. It is important to allow Gloria the opportunity of thinking by herself. I don't want to give her suggestions for what I want from her, or prompt her. This will allow her the chance to think by herself and come up with her own visualizations of the story.
Gloria needs to fall in love with reading! She needs to discover books that are relevant to her life. She needs books that she LOVES! In the survey that Gloria completed, she stated that she likes to read American Girl stories and stories about slavery. I suspect that she likes to read about people (mostly young girls her age) overcoming adversity and solving problems.
I think the best intervention is to provide Gloria with a lot of books, and time to read these books! She needs to read, read, read!
She may need some encouragement to read more. Pizza Hut has a program, called BOOK IT! Students can log minutes read and books read. If they reach their monthly goal, students earn free Pizza! http://www.bookitprogram.com/ourstory/ourprogram.asp
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