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Transcript of Religion Project
hood Effort Concen-
ness The schools of Vedanta and Nyaya
states that karma itself proves the
existence of God. Nyaya being the school of logic,
makes the "logical" inference that the universe
is an effect and it ought to have a creator. Atheistic doctrines dominate Hindu schools like Samkhya and Mimamsa.The Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra of Samkhya argues that the existence of God (Ishvara) cannot be proved and hence cannot be admitted to exist. The Hindu scriptures refer to celestial entities called Devas
(or dev in feminine form; devat used synonymously for Deva in Hindi), which means "the shining ones" Hindu epics and the Puranas relate several episodes of the descent of God to Earth in corporeal form to restore dharma to society and to guide humans to moksha Karma translates literally as action, work, or deed Yoga and Meditation ॐ - Om/Aum Hindu practices generally involve seeking
awareness of God and sometimes also seeking blessings from Devas Om is used as a chant or mantra in meditation. It is thought to be the first vibration, the sound of all creation.
It has several different pronunciations. It is thought to be a mystical word, present in many prayers of Indian religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism.
It is generally not used on its own, but is often the beginning to other mantras such as 'Om namah Shivya' or 'Om shanti shanti'
Some believe it is similar to Amen Hinduism The four curves represent the
four states of consciousness and the circle
represents the Self The
state A: U: M: AUM: The Self Char Dham: The four holy sites Puri, Rameswaram, Dwarka, and Badrinath compose the Char Dham (four abodes) pilgrimage circuit.
Kumbh Mela: The Kumbh Mela (pitcher festival) is one of the holiest of Hindu pilgrimages that is held afetr every 12 years; the location is rotated among Allahabad, Haridwar, Nashik, and Ujjain.
Old Holy cities as per Puranic Texts: Varanasi formerly known as Kashi, Allahabad formerly known as Prayag, Haridwar-Rishikesh, Mathura-Vrindavan, and Ayodhya.
Puri, Katra, Three comparatively recent temples of fame and huge pilgrimage are Shirdi, Turipati, and Sabarimala.
Shakti Peethas: Another important set of pilgrimages are the Shakti Peethas, where the Mother Goddess is worshipped, the two principal ones being Kalighat and Kamakhya. Deep
State Pilgrimage is not required in Hinduism. Dream
Self Shruti primarily refers to the Vedas, which form the earliest record of the Hindu scriptures There are 4 Vegas: Rg-, Sma-, Yajus- and Atharva Yoga Yoga can be used religiously or
simply as exercise.
Yoga is used to calm the mind and
relax the body, and that is why it is
so popular in the Hindu and Buddhist
religions. Meditation Bhagavad Gita Encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that aim to develop mindfulness, concentration, supernatural powers, tranquility, and insight.
Relates to the Eight Fold Path in regard to Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration, and Right View These supernatural powers, or supramundane powers, are called Iddhi. They are physical, not mental, and include:
Multiplying the body into many bodies, then collapsing it into one again
Vanishing and appearing at will (invisibility)
Passing through solid objects as if through space (intangibility)
Rising and sinking in the ground as if in the water
Walking on water as if on land
Touching anything at any distance (e.g. the moon or sun)
Traveling to other worlds (like the world of Brahma) with or without the body
Teleporting Hinduism, from the Persian hindu (Sanskrit sindhu), literally "river." Means "of the Indus Valley" or simply "Indian." Hindus call their religion sanatama dharma,"eternal religion" or "eternal truth." 900 million followers Though mainly in Nepal and India, Hindus create about 0.4% of the American population, and 0.95% of the United Kingdom's population Sanskrit is the original language guru or sage is the spiritual leader Theism: pantheism with polytheistic elements Buddhism Human Nature: bondage to ignorance and illusion, but able to escape. Live their lives: order life according to the dharma Hinduism Yoga is used to prepare one for meditation, and meditation is used to realize union of one's self, one's atman (one's soul), with the omnipresent Brahman Their after life is based on if karma unresolved, soul is born into a new body; if karma resolved, attain moksa (liberation) MAJOR HOLIDAYS
Ramnavami (late March)
Dusserah (early November)
Diwali (mid-November) Bodhi Tree It was a large and very old Sacred Fig tree located in
Bodh Gaya under which Siddhartha Gautama, the spiritual teacher later known as Gautama Buddha, is said to have achieved enlightenment, or Bodhi. In religious iconography, the Bodhi tree is recognizable by its heart-shaped leaves, which are usually prominently displayed. It is a frequent destination for Buddhist pilgrims, being the most important of the four main buddhist pilgrimage sites. Lotus represents one
symbol of fortune
in Buddhism It grows in muddy water, giving forth the flower's first and most literal meaning: rising and blooming above the murk to receive enlightenment The second meaning, which is related to the first, is purification.
It resembles purifying the spirit which is born into murkiness The third meaning refers to faithfulness. Those who are working to rise above muddy waters will need to be faithful followers The Three Precious Jewels
Triple Gem The core of Buddhism is
made up of the three
pillars of the Buddha,
the Dharma (the teachings), and the
and nuns) Simply, one could say that without the Shakyamuni there would have been no Buddhist Dharma, nor Sangha. Without his teachings (the Dharma), the Buddha would not have made much of a difference, and also the spiritual community would not have existed.
Without the , the tradition would never have have been transmitted through the ages. The Buddha would have been 'just' a historical figure and his teachings would have been 'just' books. Buddha Sangha teachings (the Dharma) The Eight Auspicious
Knot The Parasol The parasol is a symbol of royal
dignity and protection from the
heat of the sun. By extension, it
represents protection from suffering. The Golden Fish The two fish were originally
symbolic of the rivers Ganges
and Yamuna, but came to
represent good fortune in
general, for Hindus, Jain and
Buddhists. Within Buddhism it
also symbolises that living beings who practice the dharma need have no fear
to drown in the ocean of suffering, and can freely migrate (chose their rebirth) like fish in the water. The Conch Shell a white conch that
coils to the right represents
the sound of the Dharma reaching far and
ignorance. The Banner of Victory The victory
the demon Mara
what Mara represents --
passion, fear of death,
pride and lust. The Vase The treasure
filled with precious
and sacred things,
yet no matter how
much is taken out,
it is always full.
life and prosperity. The Eternal Knot Represents dependent
origination and the
interrelation of all
phenomena. It also
signifies cause and
effect and the union
of compassion and
wisdom. The colors of the lotus have different meanings White: Mental and spiritual purity
Red: The heart, compassion and love
Blue: Wisdom and control of the senses
Pink: The historical Buddha
Purple: Mysticism White: Red: Blue: Pink: Purple: The
Truths Overcoming these desires during life eventually brings suffering to an end Desires can be overcome by following the Eightfold Path Suffering is a part of human life. No one can escape from suffering while alive Countries with highest proportion of Hindus:
1. Nepal 86.5%
2. India 80.5%
3. Mauritius 54% Details Practices Pilgrimage! NO SINGLE FOUNDER Formed of diverse traditions
distinct intellectual and philosophical points of view
no rigid set of beliefs Considered one of the oldest religions. The earliest evidence of the religion relates back to 1500-500 BCE.
It's roots tie it to the historical Vedic religion of Iron Age India. Third Largest Religion (After Christianity and Islam)
at roughly 13.78% of the world’s population Rituals Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheism (one god), polytheism (many gods), panentheism (physical universe is tied to a god or gods), pantheism (physical universe is equivalent to a god), monism (everything is one), and atheism (disbelief in a god or gods) among others. Hindu practices generally involve seeking
awareness of God and sometimes also s
eeking blessings from Devas If they worship at home, they normally have a
shrine built with images of the god they are worshiping sometimes with offerings. You do not HAVE to visit temples to worship. Mantras are invocations, praise and prayers that through their
meaning, sound, and chanting style help a devotee focus the
mind on holy thoughts or express devotion to God/the deities Most Hindus observe religious
rituals at home. Devout Hindus perform daily chores such as worshiping at dawn after bathing (usually at a family shrine, and typically includes lighting a lamp and offering foodstuffs before the images of deities), recitation from religious scripts, singing devotional hymns, meditation, chanting mantras, reciting scriptures etc When someone dies, it's customary for the corpse to be cremated. This applies to everyone except sanyasis, Hijras(Males being females), and children 5 and under.
To cremate the body, it is typically wrapped in cloth and burned on a pyre. (men or women over fifty
or by young monks who
wish to renounce worldly
and materialistic pursuits
and dedicate their lives
to spiritual pursuits) Denominations The Rig Veda
sacred collection of hymns, the oldest scripture
and the mainstay of Hindu philosophy
does not take a restrictive view on the
fundamental question of God and the
creation of universe, allowing adaptation The denominations differ primarily in the god worshipped as the Supreme One and in the traditions that accompany worship of that god. Vaishnavism Shaivism Shaktism Smartism Lord Vishnu is God God is Siva Goddess Shakti
is supreme the choice of Deity
is left to the devotee (Liberal Hindus) Scriptures The Rig Veda This Rig Veda manuscript is in Devanagari (the alphabet used for Sanskrit, Hindi,
and other Indian Languages om asato m sadgamaya
tamaso m jyotirgamayamtyor m amta gamaya
om nti nti nti – bhadrayaka upaniada 1.3.28 Lead Us From the Unreal To the Real
Lead Us From Darkness To Light
Lead Us From Death To Immortality
OM Let There Be Peace Peace Peace.
– Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.3.28. Translation: The Rigveda is the first and most important Veda. Dharma is "that which upholds" or "Natural Law" FUN FACTS!! Palmistry, acupressure, acupuncture, Jyotish Shastra (Astrology), martial art, and many other ancient wonders originated in India and are parts of Hinduism Religion
Yoga, Pranayama (yoga term meaning control of the breath), Ayurveda (the ancient art of Hindu medicine and of prolonging life), vegetarianism, and meditation came from Hinduism To make it easier to understand,
it can also be worded to relate
to a more medical side of things There
is an illness Suffering comes from people's desires for pleasure and material goods There is
of illness There is
a possibility of a cure of the illness There is a
i.e., what we
need to do to
a cure Founded by an Indian prince named
around the year
500 BCE. According to tradition, the
young prince lived an affluent and
sheltered life until a journey during
which he saw an old man, a sick man,
a poor man, and a corpse. Shocked and
distressed at the suffering in the world,
Gautama left his family to seek
enlightenment through asceticism.
But even the most extreme asceticism failed
to bring enlightenment. Siddharta Guatama Today there are over 360 million followers of Buddhism 0.7% of the U.S. population claims to
7% of the world is Buddhist Myanmar Thailand Cambodia It is the fourth largest world religion Festivals Diwali – The festival of lights.
Vijayadashami – Celebrating the victory of good over evil.
Gudhipadawa – Hindu New Year.
Mahashivratri – The day on which the universe was created.
Makar Sankranti – Transmigration of Sun into Makar Rashi.
Navratri – Mother Goddess is worshiped for nine days.
Ramnavami – Birthday of Lord Rama.
Ganesh Festival – Festival of Lord Ganesha. Buddhism Theravada Mahayana Vajrayana harsher and more hardworking path combines Mahayana texts
and Buddhist Tantras with a blend of spiritual techniques to explore human consciousness Atheistic Oldest surviving
branch Very few rituals; not emphasized polytheistic Original language: Sanskrit Many rituals, owing to local cultural influences Three Delusions: 1. Ignorance2. Desire3. Anger or hatred In Buddhism, there are many lists.
These lists create the basis of the Buddhist religion. Some are simple, while others complex. Three Trainings: 1. Moral discipline2. Concentration3. Wisdom Three Marks of Existence: 1. Impermanence (anicca) 2. Unsatisfactoriness (dukkha)3. No-self (anatta) Four Immeasurables or Sublime States: 1. Equanimity (upekkha)2. Loving-kindness (metta) 3. Compassion (karuna) 4. Sympathetic joy (mudita) Four Reminders: 1. Human life is precious.2. Death is inevitable.3. The laws of karma cannot be avoided.4. Suffering permeates all existence. Four Bodhisattva Vows: A person who is able to reach nirvana but delays doing so out of compassion in order to save suffering beings. ( "Buddha to be" ) 1. I vow to rescue the boundless living beings from suffering.2. I vow to put an end to the infinite afflictions of living beings.3. I vow to learn the measureless Dharma-doors.4. I vow to realize the unsurpassed path of the Buddha. Five Rules of Behavior: 1. Do not kill.2. Do not steal.3. Do not engage in sexual misconduct.4. Do not lie.5. Do not use intoxicants. Five Powers: 1. Faith and confidence2. Energy and effort3. Mindfulness4. Samadhi (a state of concentration)5. Wisdom Five Hindrances: 1. Sense craving2. Anger or ill will 3. Sloth and torpor4. Restlessness and worry5. Doubt and the inner critic Six Perfections: 1. Concentration2. Effort 3. Ethical behavior4. Generosity5. Patience6. Wisdom Six Realms of Existence: 1. Hell-beings2. Hungry ghosts 3. Animals4. Humans5. Anti-gods or demigods6. Gods Ten traits of perfection: 1. Giving or generosity2. Virtue, ethics, morality3. Renunciation, letting go, not grasping4. Wisdom and insight 5. Energy, vigour, vitality, diligence6. Patience or forbearance7. Truthfulness8. Resolution, determination, intention9. Kindness, love, friendliness10. Equanimity Twelve Links of Dependent Arising: What links
together 1. Ignorance
2. Karmic formations
4. Name and form
5. Six senses
6. Contact 7. Feeling
12. Aging and Death