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Evolution News

A news survey of topics that caught my interest
by

Denise King

on 21 April 2010

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Transcript of Evolution News

EVOLUTION NEWS genetic changes over time fossil record speciation events phylogeny (relatedness) methodological naturalism how the natural world took shape evolution on the molecular scale Origin of organelles Local adaptation causes the evolution of differences in diet, which, in turn, causes differences in ecosystem structure geologic time world pop 6.8 billion
age of earth 4.5 billion Australopithecus sediba
Volvox has taken these genes that initially had nothing to do with sex, incorporated them into its mating locus, and started using some of them in its sexual reproductive cycle anaerobic multicellular life giant single celled protists transition from single to multicellular life Lizards: playing rock, paper scissors
It is simply mind-boggling to think about deep time and these evolutionary cycles. Algae and the origin of males and females balancing selection in yeast morphogenes versus physiogenes References Felicity Alcock, Abigail Clements, Chaille Webb, and Trevor Lithgow. Tinkering Inside the Organelle. Science, 2010; 327 (5966): 649-650 DOI: 10.1126/science.1182129 mitochondria evolved from symbiotic proteobacteria provide energy for cells regulate cell metabolism how did protein import evolve? TIM and TOM Patrick Ferris, Bradley J. S. C. Olson, Peter L. De Hoff, Stephen Douglass, David Casero, Simon Prochnik, Sa Geng, Rhitu Rai, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz, Ichiro Nishii, Takashi Hamaji, Hisayoshi Nozaki, Matteo Pellegrini, and James G. Umen. Evolution of an Expanded Sex-Determining Locus in Volvox. Science, 16 April 2010 328: 351-354 DOI: 10.1126/science.1186222 Volvox mating locus is about five times bigger than that of Chlamydomonas Volvox has large eggs and small sperm Chlamydomonas has equal sized gametes http://www.sciencedaily.com Guppies from the more diverse fish communities ate more insect larvae while the low-predation guppies -- guppies from the simple fish communities -- ate more algae created artificial streams alongside natural ones seeded the steams with natural flora and fauna some streams had high fish diversity and others just a few fish species Relationship between ecology and evolution population dynamics Ronald D. Bassara,1, Michael C. Marshallb, Andrés López-Sepulcrea, Eugenia Zandonàc, Sonya K. Auera, Joseph Travisd, Catherine M. Pringleb, Alexander S. Fleckere, Steven A. Thomasf, Douglas F. Fraserg, and David N. Reznick Local adaptation in Trinidadian guppies alters ecosystem processes PNAS February 23, 2010 vol. 107 no. 8 3616-3621 Researchers estimate that the pair lived between 1.78 and 1.95 million years ago in what is now South Africa walked upright, could climb trees, small brain, small teeth and advanced pelvises Lee R. Berger,1,2,* Darryl J. de Ruiter,3,1 Steven E. Churchill,4,1 Peter Schmid,5,1 Kristian J. Carlson,1,6 Paul H. G. M. Dirks,2,7 Job M. Kibii1 Australopithecus sediba: A New Species of Homo-Like Australopith from South Africa Science 9 April 2010: Vol. 328. no. 5975, pp. 195 - 204 DOI: 10.1126/science.1184944 Gromia-like protists might have been responsible for the tracks and fossils of the Stirling formation, and hence their extant representatives may be the ultimate macroscopic ‘‘living fossils,’’ morphologically unchanged since 1.8 billion years ago Matz et al., Giant Deep-Sea Protist Produces Bilaterian-like Traces, Current Biology (2008), oi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.10.028 tolerate enormous osmotic pressure detoxify highly toxic compounds live entirely without oxygen - lack mitochondria Danovaro et al. BMC Biology 2010, 8:30 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/30 possess a large number of hydrogenosome-like organelles, normally associated with endosymbiotic prokaryotes Chlamydomonas Volvox Pleodorina starrii Matthew D. Herron,1, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Frank O. Aylward,2 and Richard E. Michod Triassic origin and early radiation of multicellular volvocine algae PNAS March 3, 2009 vol. 106 no. 9 3254-3258 early cycle of cooperation, conflict and conflict mediation led to a rapid integration and radiation of multicellular forms phylogeny of Volvox genus indicates the group evolved 200 mya genetic control of cell number promotes cooperation conflict between goo production and reproduction evolutionary theory predicts that new species could arise from particular morphs originally found in a population containing multiple morphs study showed clear evidence of very rapid evolution of body size when morphs are lost from a population Uta stansburiana Ammon Corl1,2, Alison R. Davis3, Shawn R. Kuchta4, and Barry Sinervo Selective loss of polymorphic mating types is associated with rapid phenotypic evolution during morphic speciation PNAS March 2, 2010 vol. 107 no. 9 4254-4259 Saccharomyces kudriavzevii exists in two very different states: one that can efficiently digest the sugar galactose and one that cannot balancing selection actively maintains different versions of an individual gene in the a gene pool of a population instead of a single gene, like sickle cell anemia...
network of genes, one that is dispersed throughout the yeast genome Chris Todd Hittinger1,2, Paula Gonçalves3, José Paulo Sampaio3, Jim Dover1,2, Mark Johnston1,2 & Antonis Rokas4 Remarkably ancient balanced polymorphisms in a multi-locus gene network Nature 464, 54-58 (4 March 2010) | doi:10.1038/nature08791; Received 19 May 2009; Accepted 15 December 2009; Published online 17 February 2010 striking example of a balanced unlinked gene network polymorphism introduces a remarkable type of intraspecific variation that may be widespread Ben-Yang Liaoa,1, Meng-Pin Wenga, and Jianzhi Zhangb,1 Contrasting genetic paths to morphological and physiological evolution PNAS April 20, 2010 vol. 107 no. 16 7353-7358 examined 5,200 knockout genes in mice found about 900 morphogenes which affect only morphological traits, not physiological traits foundabout 900 physiogenes that affect only physiological traits, not morphology Morphogenes were more likely to carry instructions for transcription Physiogenes were more likely to be blueprints for enzymes, receptors, transporters and ion channels physiological changes are due to protein sequence changes, while morphological changes result from changes in gene expression
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