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Higher and Advanced Higher ROMANTIC ERA

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Gillespies Music

on 23 January 2014

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Transcript of Higher and Advanced Higher ROMANTIC ERA

ROMANTIC ERA
1830-1900

Defining features
The orchestra grows, developing the pianoforte, and the concert harp.

Very expressive music using swells in dynamics, and tempo.

Composers do not stay within the rules of classical music, and explore the use of unrelated keys.

Composers of note
Schubert
Mahler
Brahms
Vocal music in the Romantic Era
OPERA

ORATORIO

LIEDER
OPERA
It is important to understand that at this point in time there were two main styles of opera,
Italian
and
German
.

Italian opera was very much a vehicle of good melodies and exciting tunes with less emphasis on drama
while
German operas was more concerned with drama and perhaps less so with memorable tunes.
Composer:
WEBER
In the
1820s

Weber produced three operas,
‘Der Freischütz’, ‘Euryanthe’ and ‘Oberon’,
and is regarded as being the father of German opera.





Among the many composers influenced by Der Freischütz was a young
Richard Wagner
, who would come to be seen by many as Weber's successor and who used this technique in his operas.
Italian Opera
At the beginning of the Romantic period three Italian composers are most important in the development of opera,
Rossini, Donizetti and Bellini.

All three composers were renowned for the compositions in the
‘Bel Canto’ (beautiful singing)
style of long and smooth melody.
One of the most famous of
Rossini's
arias is from his comic opera,
‘The Barber of Seville’
. The aria, sung by the barber, Figaro, a baritone voice, is a bright and happy sound,
‘I am the barber everyone wants’.
Important
Recitative:

A type of vocal writing where the music follows the rhythm of speech. It is used in operas and oratorios to move the story or plot on.
Aria:
A song in an opera, oratorio or cantata with orchestral accompaniment. This normally follows recitative as is shown in the example.
Chorus:
A group of singers with several people to each part.
Be careful!
There are also
duets, trios, quartets
of singers in Operas!




The Opera is a drama set to music accompanied by an orchestra.
Oratorio in the Romantic Period
Story from the Bible set to music for soloists, chorus and orchestra.

It may include
recitatives, arias, duets and chorus.


It is performed without acting or stage design.
Composer:
Mendelssohn
Composed famous Oratorio:
Elijah
Lieder in the Romantic Era
Lied:
This term (the German word for song) refers specifically in the Romantic era to works for
solo voice and piano.


The text is in German, the structure of the verses is
strophic
and
through composed.
An important feature is that the v
oice and piano are equally important.

Lieder song cycles
Song Cycle:
A group of songs linked by a common theme or with a text written by the same author, usually
accompanied by piano
but sometimes by
small ensembles or full orchestra.
German composers such as Schubert, Schumann, Brahms and Mahler took german poetry and composed song cycles.
Symphony
A large work for orchestra usually in four movements.

The movements:
1. Fast
2. Slow
3. Scherzo
4. Fast.
Scherzo

A lively movement in
triple time
usually in
ternary form
and often found as the third movement of a
symphony
, sonata or chamber work.
Concerto
Work for solo instrument and orchestra,
e.g. a flute concerto is written for flute and orchestra.

It is normally has
three movements
with a
cadenza.

CADENZA:
A passage of music which allows soloists to display their technical ability in singing or playing an instrument.
Programme music
Music which tells a story or paints a picture in sound.
Tone Poem
One movement piece for orchestra which tells a story or maybe relates to a personal experience from the composer’s life. Also known as
symphonic poems.

Rubato
A direction to the performer which allows freedom to change speed, thus allowing more expression.
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