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Root, Stem, and Leaf Anatomy

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Emily Bogner

on 29 January 2013

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Transcript of Root, Stem, and Leaf Anatomy

Root, Stem, and Leaf
Anatomy Roots Maintaining Health - A plant’s health is mainly tied to the health of its root system

- When roots are weakened or diseased, the whole plant has difficulties Functions of a Root System The root system serves many roles for the plant Absorb Water and Nutrients - Roots absorb all water and nutrients that a plant needs to live

-Soil moisture plays a huge role in helping/hurting plant growth

-Available water – water that can be absorbed by the plant
-Unavailable water – water that is bound too tightly to soil particles to be used
-Water holding capacity – ability of soils to hold water

a. Sandy soils have low water holding capacity

b. Clay soils have high water holding capacity
-Support above ground plant
-Hold plant to the ground in the soil Anchoring Store Food Made Through Photosynthesis - Food used later when a plant needs it to grow or survive Parts of the Root When a seed germinates, the first thing to emerge is the root

This becomes the primary root – most important in entire root system
Secondary roots – other roots that branch from the primary root

Apical meristem – at the tip of the root where new cells develop - Root cap – covers the apical meristem to protect the new cells from getting damaged as it cuts through the soil

- Epidermis – layer of cells on the surface of the root

- Root hairs – projections of the epidermis used to increase surface area for water absorption - Taproot system – one primary root and many secondary roots

Many dicots have a taproot system

- Fibrous root system – no dominant primary root, but several primary and secondary roots of similar size
Monocots Types of Root Systems Healthy Roots - Healthy roots are white in color and smell fresh

- Should be evenly dispersed in the pot or ground

- Watering the plant properly is the best way to keep the roots Stems Function of a Stem Support the leaves to reach good sunlight
Move water, minerals, and manufactured food through the whole plant
Translocation – movement of food and water through the plant tissue
Help produce food through photosynthesis
Store food to be used by the plant Structure of the Stem -Apical meristem – growing point at the tip of the stem
o Responsible for growth the length of the plant
Terminal bud – contains the apical meristem
Node – where the leaf is attached to the stem
Internode – area between leaves
Leaf scar – scar where a leaf has fallen off in a prior season
Lenticels – small spots on the stem that allow for exchanging gases in its environment Tissues Inside the Plant - Tissues inside the plant are used to transport materials
- Xylem – conducts water and minerals through the plant
- Phloem – conducts food produced from the leaves
- Vascular cambium – growth in the girth of the stem
- Growth rings – age of the tree determined in year
o Summer/wet years – large rings
o Winter/dry years – small rings Bulb – short, flattened stem with fleshy leaves
ex. Onion, tulip
Corm – entire structure is a stem, no leaves
ex. Gladiolus
Rhizome – thick underground stem that lies horizontally
ex. Hostas
Stolon – horizontal stem that lies above ground
ex. Strawberries
Tuber – rhizome with a swollen tip to store food
ex. Potatoes Leaves Functions - Leaves are the primary food-producing organs of the plant

- Collect light and use that energy to produce food Parts of the Leaf - Leaf blade – large, broad flat surface that collects sunlight

- Petiole – leaf stem that holds the leaf

Helps transport water and sugar

- Midrib – the main vein of the leaf - Margin – the outline of the leaf

- Tip – top of the leaf opposite the petiole

- Veins – transport in the leaf

- Base – bottom of the leaf near the attachment to the petiole Veins - Parallel veins – none of the veins cross
Found in monocots
Corn, grass
-Netted veins – connect and branch from one another
Pinnate – branch out from midrib
Palmate – branch out from petiole Types of Leaves - Simple leaf – only one blade on its petiole
- Compound leaf – multiple blades
Pinnate – multiple attachment points to the petiole
Palmate - all of the leaflets are attached at a common point Opposite – leaves arranged directly across from one another
Alternate – spaced along the stem in an alternating fashion
Whorled – three or more leaves are attached to a single node Leaf Arrangements
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