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EnviSci

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by

Rodel Reyes

on 16 October 2012

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Transcript of EnviSci

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Chapter 15
Air, Weather and Climate The air around us is a mixture of gases. It contains the following:

Nitrogen
Oxygen
Water vapor
Argon
Carbon dioxide Gases of the Air Air is the commercial source for many of the gases it contains. It is separated into its components by fractional distillation of liquefied air.

The amount of water in the air varies tremendously with location, temperature, and time.

Nitrogen is obtained from liquid air by distillation at -196 deg C. The gas obtained by this process is actually a mixture of nitrogen and about 1.25% noble (or “inert”) gases, argon, neon, krypton, and xenon. The lighter noble gas neon is obtained from air. Its boiling point (-246 deg C) is too low for neon to condense during the liquefaction of air, and neon concentrates in the gas that remains after air is liquefied.

Argon is the most abundant and most used of the noble gases. Its chief uses are in metallurgy, where it provides an inert atmosphere in which hot metals can be worked. Air issues A substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment is known as an air pollutant.

Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made.

Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary.

Primary pollutants are directly emitted from a process.

Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly, rather formed when primary pollutants interact. Air pollution
What is the Status of Air Quality in our Country?
Based on the Environmental Performance Index for 2008, the Philippines ranks 5th (out of 11 countries) in the ASEAN Region,including Japan, China and South Korea
How is Metro Manila Air Quality Compared with Other International Cities?
Data from the DOH’s Field Health Survey and the EMB’s air quality monitoring both show a downward trend from 2003 through 2007 in terms of bronchitis health data.
What is the Correlation between Air Quality and Health in Metro Manila (from 2003 to 2007)?

What are the Reasons on the Downward Trend of values (or improvement) of Air Quality in Metro Manila? Completion of the MRT construction along EDSA
Implementation of the MMDA‐Unified Vehicle Reduction Program along main thoroughfares (Color coding) i.e. EDSA

Phase‐out of leaded gasoline in January 2001

Intensified emission testing prior to LTO registration renewal thru private emission testing centers (PETCs) starting January 2003 Intensified anti‐smoke belching operations by MMDA thru MMAQISDP (2000‐2002), the SMOKE FREE EDSA (Oct 2003) later changed to LINIS HANGIN PROGRAM (Nov. 2004 up to June 2009) by DENR.

Conversion of gasoline‐fed taxis to LPG

Introduction of new CNG buses pursuant to Executive Order No. 290 (Euro II Compliant) is basically the way the atmosphere is behaving over a short period of time, mainly with respect to its effects upon life and human activities

Occurs primarily due to density (temperature and moisture) differences between one place to another

is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy WEATHER which is a temporary status of the atmosphere, varies with time and place and various types of weather can be seen in various parts of the world

can change from minute-to minute, hour-to-hour, day-to-day, and season-to-season

Meteorologists study the weather Temperature (degrees celsius)
Sunshine (how bright it is)
Cloud cover (oktas)
Precipitation (how much rain/hail/sleet/snow)
wind speed (wind strength)
wind direction (place the wind is coming from)
atmospheric pressure (low or high pressure) measured in millibars (mb) The Components of Weather Coastal weather can be observed in the coastal or oceanic regions.

One of the most prominent characteristics of coastal weather is that the temperature does not vary so much with the change of seasons throughout the year in these of these coastal areas.

The climate of marine regions is never extremes. Coastal Weather Different Types of Weather Extreme hot weather can be seen in the equatorial regions of the earth.

Throughout the year, the temperature remains very warm in these equatorial locations.

The amount of rainfall is also very high throughout the year. Sometimes the temperature falls a little (only about 3 degrees of Celsius) in the winter months. Hot Weather Cold weather can be observed in the polar climate zones.

The temperature remains almost same throughout the year n these Polar Regions. Cold Weather The weather in the mountainous regions is known as the mountain weather.

The climate of those regions is generally cold enough.

New Zealand comes under those high countries that enjoy the mountain weather conditions.  Mountain Weather Cyclone
Fog
Heat Wave
Cold Wave
Severe Thunderstorm
Tornado
Tropical Cyclone
Windstorm
Winter Storm SEVERE WEATHER PHENOMENA Thermometer – air temperature

Rain Gauge– amount of water

Weathervane – wind direction

Anemometer – wind speed

Oktas – cloud cover

Barometer – air pressure

Hygrometer – humidity (moist) INSTRUMENTS USED TO MEASURE WEATHER from Ancient Greek klima, meaning inclination
commonly defined as the weather averaged over a long period

affected by its latitude,terrain, altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents

Classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. Climate Köppen Climate Classification Rainforest Tropical Moist Climates
Rainfall is heavy in all months.
There are seasonal differences in monthly rainfall but temperatures of 27°C (80°F) mostly stay the same. Humidity is between 77% and 88%.
High surface heat and humidity cause cumulus clouds to form early in the afternoons almost every day.  Group I : Low-latitude Climates Savanna Wet-Dry Tropical Climates
A seasonal change occurs between wet tropical air masses and dry tropical air masses. As a result, there is a very wet season and a very dry season.

Trade winds dominate during the dry season. It gets a little cooler during this dry season but will become very hot just before the wet season. Desert Dry Tropical Climate
These desert climates are found in low-latitude deserts approximately between 18° to 28° in both hemispheres.

Winds are light, which allows for the evaporation of moisture in the intense heat. They generally flow downward so the area is seldom penetrated by air masses that produce rain. This makes for a very dry heat. The dry arid desert is a true desert climate, and covers 12 % of the Earth's land surface. Steppe Dry Midlatitude Climates
Characterized by grasslands, this is a semiarid climate.

If it received less rain, the steppe would be classified as an arid desert. With more rain, it would be classified as a tallgrass prairie

Moist ocean air masses are blocked by mountain ranges to the west and south. These mountain ranges also trap polar air in winter, making winters very cold. Summers are warm to hot. Group II : Mid-latitude Climates Chaparral Mediterranean Climate

This is a wet-winter, dry-summer climate. Extremely dry summers are caused by the sinking air of the subtropical highs and may last for up to five months.

Plants have adapted to the extreme difference in rainfall and temperature between winter and summer seasons. Grasslands Dry Midlatitude Climates
These dry climates are limited to the interiors of North America and Eurasia.

Ocean air masses are blocked by mountain ranges to the west and south. This allows polar air masses to dominate in winter months. In the summer, a local continental air mass is dominant.

A small amount of rain falls during this season.

Annual temperatures range widely. Summers are warm to hot, but winters are cold. Deciduous Forest Moist Continental Climate
This climate is in the polar front zone - the battleground of polar and tropical air masses.

Seasonal changes between summer and winter are very large. Daily temperatures also change often.

Abundant precipitation falls throughout the year. It is increased in the summer season by invading tropical air masses. Cold winters are caused by polar and arctic masses moving south. Taiga Boreal forest Climate
This is a continental climate with long, very cold winters, and short, cool summers. This climate is found in the polar air mass region.

Very cold air masses from the arctic often move in. The temperature range is larger than any other climate.

Precipitation increases during summer months, although annual precipitation is still small. Group III : High-latitude climates Tundra Tundra Climate
The tundra climate is found along arctic coastal areas. Polar and arctic air masses dominate the tundra climate.
The winter season is long and severe. A short, mild season exists, but not a true summer season.
Moderating ocean winds keep the temperatures from being as severe as interior regions. Alpine Highland Climate
Highland climates are cool to cold, found in mountains and high plateaus. Climates change rapidly on mountains, becoming colder the higher the altitude gets.

Mountain climates are very important to midlatitude biomes. They work as water storage areas. Snow is kept back until spring and summer when it is released slowly as water through melting. Modified Corona Classification Climate in the Philippines CLIMATE WEATHER
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