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Child Abuse & Neglect

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on 18 May 2014

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Transcript of Child Abuse & Neglect

Signs of Child Neglect & Abuse
Reporting Cases of Child Abuse & Neglect
Life long effects of Emotional Abuse on Children
Emotional Abuse of a Child
Child Neglect
Life Effects of Child Sexual Abuse
Physical Child Abuse
Life time effects of Physical Abuse
Child Sexual Abuse
Life long effects of
Munchausen syndrome by proxy
Rare Forms of Child Abuse
What is Child Neglect?
Child Neglect Signs:
Inappropriate dress and clothing / dirty clothes,
Child is always hungry,
Poor hygiene in general,
Inadequate supervision, no medical care provided when necessary,
Constantly left with other caretakers,
Not developing properly due to lack of weight,
Not reaching milestones,
Being absent from school (“Parenting: Signs of Child Neglect,” n.d.).

Physical Abuse Signs:
Swollen areas,
Marks on the child’s face, head, back, chest, genital area, buttocks or thighs,
Wounds like human bite marks, cigarette burns, broken bones, puncture marks or missing hair may indicate abuse" (Child Physical Abuse, n.d.).
What are the Signs of Child Abuse & Neglect?
Neglect can lead to:
Higher risk for mental illness
Depressive disorders
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Tendency for suicide
Health problems and a causal link to chronic diseases (Norman et al, 2012).
Poor educational and social outcomes including relationship problems
How does this Form of Abuse affect their lives?
Neglect is a broad area of many sub topics and is hard to define. It may be defined as:
A chronic failure to ensure a child’s basic needs are met, which can include healthcare, education, emotional well-being, nutrition, shelter and a safe place of living including adequate supervision (Stoltenborgh et al, 2013).
“In Australia, state and territory governments are responsible for receiving reports of suspected child maltreatment from members of the public. Anyone who suspects, on reasonable grounds, that a child or young person is at risk of being neglected or physically, sexually or emotionally abused, should report it to the authority in their state or territory” (Reporting Abuse and Neglect, 2013).
Many professionals in the community have been elected to report cases of neglect and abuse including medical staff, education staff and police, just to name a few, and most of the time the severe cases are recognised and reported (Mathews, 2012). However, many cases are never reported as this issue in society is so complex and some cases of neglect and abuse fall under the radar and are never noticed by society.

Reporting Cases
Child Abuse & Neglect
What is Physical Child Abuse?
“Generally, child physical abuse refers to the non-accidental use of physical force against a child that results in harm to the child. A parent does not have to intend to physically harm their child to have physically abused them (e.g., physical punishment that results in bruising would generally be considered physical abuse)” ("What is child abuse and neglect," 2012).
Signs of Physical Abuse in a child
Life long effects

“In a population-based cohort of middle-aged men and women, childhood physical abuse predicted worse mental and physical health decades after the abuse. These effects were attenuated by age, sex, family background, and childhood adversities, but not eliminated” (Springer et al, 2007).
Reporting Physical Abuse
What is Child Sexual Abuse?
Child sexual abuse is hard to define as it can be physical, verbal or emotional, however the common theme is that it is seen as interactions between a child and an adult, stronger child or adolescent, (Shapiro & Dominiak, 1990) and is when the child is being used for the sexual stimulation. (Queensland Government, n.d.)
Sexual Abuse Signs
Effects on Child Throughout life
The effect depends on the length of abuse and at what age the abuse happened. Young children tend to suffer little effect if the abuse is short, (American Psychology Association, n.d.). If abuse is lengthy then lifelong effects could be; depression, alcoholism, self-mutilating, separation anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder and an inability to relate well to others (American Psychology Association, n.d.; Shapiro & Dominiak, 1990).
Reporting Child Sex Abuse Case
If you know of a child being abused then you should report it to the authorities such as police or child safety. The child protection act 1999 allows for confidential reporting of harm to children. It is mandatory to report abuse if you are a medical practitioner, registered nurse, family court personnel, licensed care service worker, detention centre employee or licensed child care worker (Queensland Government, n.d.).
What is Emotional Abuse?
Emotional abuse also known as psychological maltreatment is a type of child abuse and neglect. Caregiver or parental roles in this include ignoring the need of the child for social interaction, verbal or non-verbal abuse which can be purposely or unknowingly directed which can cause harm. Emotional abuse will affect a child in an emotional, social, physical and cognitive way in terms of the child’s development (Hibbard et al, 2012).
Signs of Emotional Abuse
What Are The Effects?
"Child emotional abuse is linked to poor mental development and difficulty making and keeping strong relationships. It can lead to problems in school and at work, and to criminal behaviour.
Adults who were victims of emotional abuse as children have a higher instance of alcohol and drug abuse. Children who are abused, emotionally or physically, and do not seek help can become abusers themselves as adults" (Carey, 2012).

How to Report Emotional Abuse
Reporting cases of abuse & neglect: To make a notification of child abuse, contact your regional Child Protection office in your state as soon as possible.

Taken from: http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/618983/CYF_responding-to-child-abuse.pdf (PAGE 29)
What is Munchausen syndrome by proxy?
Munchausen syndrome by proxy, is defined as a rare form of child abuse in which a primary caretaker exaggerates and fabricates symptoms of illness in a child. (http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/factitious_disorders/hic_munchausen_syndrome.aspx)
Are There Any Signs?
Life long effects
Effects on the children can be very diverse, as the abuse is often varied from case to case. Although a child may be physically abused and forced to become ill, as many negative effects can come from the psychological toll of repeated doctors’ visits and unnecessary and intrusive procedures or exams.
How to report this rare form of Abuse
Reporting and identifying cases of Munchausen syndrome by proxy can be very difficult, due to the type of abuse that is occurring health professionals may be unsure on the true identity of the perpetrator, or have insufficient evidence to back it up. Making unwarranted claims may lead to legal lawsuits or ostracism from friends and family.
Child Sex Abuse Signs:
Child displays or verbalises inappropriate sexual knowledge,
Seductive mannerisms, (Shapiro & Dominiak, 1990),
Regression behaviours such as thumb sucking or bed wetting, (American Psychology Association, n.d.)
Unexplained personality changes,
Destroying property (Queensland Government, n.d.)
Become unusually secretive (Parents Protect, n.d.)

Emotional Abuse Signs:
Physical aggression,
Internalising and externalising symptoms,
Socio-emotional problems,
Peer rejection,
Poor academic achievement,
Low self-worth and low co-operation (Marshall, 2012).

Munchausen syndrome
in children can be identified by the child’s symptoms not fitting regular diagnoses. Symptoms improve while in care but reappear while at home. Parents are overly helpful, parents having extensive knowledge of medical terms or are able to diagnose complex illnesses.
How The Story Begins
The resources we have chosen are to provide as many factual and informative pieces of information as possible. We chose government websites, scholarly peer reviewed articles and other credible resources to ensure our research was efficient and current, including being supported by professionals in the field for extra credibility (Metzger, 2007).

We aim to draw attention to the plight of thousands of Abused and Neglected children whose cries for help go unanswered everyday, and are suffering under the hands of ordinary people like you and me. Through education we can hope and help these cries be answered.
How The Story Ends
The story of Child Abuse and Neglect ends when the people of the world have enough education on the signs and effects of abuse and neglect of our children to render the necessary and often vital help a child needs when they are brave enough to reach out for help.
References: Images & Audio

Alamy (2014). Smacking breaches international law [Image]. Retrieved from

Gulf Prices (n.d) Emotional neglect powerful childhood, invisible [Image]. Retrieved from

Help your child (2008). What are the signs of child neglect and its effects on children [Image]. Retrieved from

Newport Academy (2014) Child neglect cases often linked to parental addiction [Image]. Retrieved from

Pedersen, T (2012) Childhood neglect, isolation weaken brain circuitry [Image]. Retrieved from

Stock, W (2011). Recognizing signs of potential child abuse and neglect [Image]. Retrieved from

Wayne County Prosecution (2012). Abuse, Neglect & Dependency Prosecution [Image]. Retrieved from

Women for fathers rights (2010). [Image] Retrieved from

Yeagle, P (2009) Case Worker Who Neglects Her Children Investigates Child Neglect for State. Illinois Times [Image]. Retrieved from. http://illinoistimes.com/article-6477-caseworker-who-neglected-her-children-investigates-child-neglect-for-state.html

Nielsen, S (2014).
Undo [Recorded by Eurovision]. On
Eurovision Song Contest 2014 Copenhagen
[CD]. Retrieved from Sharleen Music Library.


References: Text

American Psychology Association. (n.d.). Understanding Child Sexual Abuse, Education, Prevention and Recovery. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/info/brochures/sex-abuse.aspx

Cauldwell, K. (2007). Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: The Cruelest Breach of Trust. Retrieved from http://voices.yahoo.com/munchausen-syndrome-proxy-cruelest-breach-of-171395.html?cat=70

Child Physical Abuse, n.d. American Humane Association. Retrieved from http://www.americanhumane.org/children/stop-child-abuse/fact-sheets/child-physical-abuse.html

The Cleveland Clinic Foundation (2010). Diseases & Conditions. Retrieved from http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/factitious_disorders/hic_munchausen_syndrome.aspx

Currie, J. (2012). Long Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect on Adult Economic Wellbeing. Retrieved from http://cmx.sagepub.com/content/15/2/111.short

Field, T. (n.d.). Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP): Factitious disorder, factitious disorder by proxy. Retrieved from http://www.bullyonline.org/workbully/munchaus.htm

Hibbard, R., Barlow, J., & MacMillan, H. (2012). Psychological Maltreatment. Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/130/2/372

Kaneshiro, N. K,. Dugdale, D. C,. & Zieve, D. (2011). Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001555.htm

Marshall, N. (2012). A clinician's guide to recognizing and reporting parental psychological maltreatment of children. Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9c365691-053d-4a49-9b97-9f4f23917174%40sessionmgr4005&vid=2&hid=4112

Mathews, B. (2012). Exploring the contested role of mandatory reporting laws in the identification of severe child abuse and neglect. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/49453/

Metzger, M. J. (2007). Making sense of credibility on the Web: Models for evaluating online information and recommendations for future research. Journal Of The American Society For Information Science & Technology, 58(13), 2078-2091.

Norman, R. E., Byambaa, M., De, R., Butchart, A., Scott, J., & Vos, T. (2012). The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001349

Parenting: Signs of Child Neglect. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.drphil.com/articles/article/698

Parents Protect. (n.d.). Child Sexual Abuse Warning Signs. Retrieved from http://www.parentsprotect.co.uk/warning_signs.htm

Queensland Government. (n.d.). Child Sexual Abuse – Things You Need to Know. Retrieved from http://www.communities.qld.gov.au/resources/childsafety/chil-protection/child-sexual-abuse-brochure.rtf

Reporting Abuse and Neglect: State and Territory departments responsible for protecting children. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.aifs.gov.au/cfca/pubs/factsheets/a142843/index.html

Shapiro, S., & Dominiak, G. (1990). Common Psychological Defenses Seen in the Treatment of Sexually Abused Adolescents. E-Journal American Journal of Psychotherapy, 44(1), 68-74. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/ehost/detail sid=9e4ad67c-7e2d-4cd1-87c5-08da703ca4b8%40sessionmgr112&vid=1&hid=113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=pbh&AN=9602290020

Springer, K., W., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D., & Carnes, M. (2007). Long-term physical and mental health consequences of childhood physical abuse: Results from a large population-based sample of men and women. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3031095/

Stoltenborgh, M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M., & van Ijzendoorn, M. (2013). The Neglect of Child Neglect: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Prevalence of Neglect.
Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00127-012-0549-y#page-1

Wells, T., Vanderlind, M., Selby, E., & Beevers, C. (2013). Childhood abuse and vulnerability to depression: Cognitive scars in otherwise healthy adults. Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/doi/pdf/10.1080/02699931.2013.864258​

What is Child Abuse and Neglect? (2012). Retrieved from http://www.aifs.gov.au/cfca/pubs/factsheets/a142091/

The Story of Child Abuse and Neglect
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