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Ancient Persia

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on 12 January 2014

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Transcript of Ancient Persia

Geography:
Everyday Life:
Writing System:
Cultural Expressions:
The Persians like many other ancient civilizations believed in many gods and demons. They also believed that the gods attitudes could change everyday depending on their mood. To keep the gods happy the Persians would pray and worship to the gods and goddesses three times a day. Some sacrifices that were preformed include:

- roasting prized bulls over a fire
-burning incense
Cultural Structures:
Ancient Persian Civilization
By: L illea Hohn
Art and Monument Component:
Why was Ancient Persia a good location to establish a civilization?

Ancient Persia was a good location to establish a civilization, although it usually had dry weather, because of lack of moisture in the air, but it occasionally rained.
Persia had a varied climate making it unpredictable for growth of plant life and vegetation. It was rich in natural resources, such as petroleum and copper.

There are three very specific types of terrain in Persia which are:

- mountains
- lowlands
-deserts.
Map of Ancient Persia
What do you think some Ancient Persians did to make a living and meet basic needs?
Here are some examples of jobs in Ancient Persia:
-Doctors
-Blacksmiths
-Scribes
-Sculptors
-Builders
-Teachers
-Soldiers and Guards
-Government/Leader
-Performers
-Tailor/Cobbler
-Merchants
-Slaves/Servants
-Laborers
-Priests (Magi - a priest)
-Poets
Bibliography:
Books Cited:
Spencer, Lauren. Iran: A Primary Source Cultural Guide. 1st ed. New York, NY: Rosen Pub. Group, 2004. Print. A Primary Source Cultural Guide.

Curtis, John, Nigel Tallis, and Béatrice André-Salvini. Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia. Berkeley: University of California, 2005. Print.


Motafram, Ervad Ratanshah R. History of Ancient Iran. Bombay: Society for the
Promotion of Zoroastrian Religious Knowledge and Education, 1993. Print.

Price, Massoume. Ancient Iran. Vancouver: Anahita Productions, 2008. Print.

Zeinert, Karen. The Persian Empire. Tarrytown, NY: Benchmark, 1997. Print.

Mallowan, M. E. L. Early Mesopotamia and Iran. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965. Print.

Frye, Richard Nelson. The Heritage of Persia. Cleveland: World Pub., 1963. Print.

Farrokh, Kaveh. Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. Oxford: Osprey, 2007. Print.


Websites Cited:
"Middle East Snow, Extreme Heatwaves and UAE Fog: What's Going on with the Weather?"- The National. The National, 29 Jan. 2013. Web. 29 Jan. 2013. http://www.thenational.ae/news/uae-news/middle-east-snow-extreme-heatwaves-and-uae-fog-whats-going-on-with-the-weather


Lambert, Tim. "The Persian Empire." The Persian Empire. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.localhistories.org/persians.html>.
"Iranian Cuisine." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 1 Feb. 2013. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iranian_cuisine>.

"Old Persian." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 21 Feb. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Persian>.

"Ancient Persia: Kings." Infoplease. Infoplease, 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0932248.html>.

Brondou, Colleen. "Darius I, King of Persia." Darius I, King of Persia. Dulcinea
Media, 5 Apr. 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2013.
<http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/d/darius-i.html>.


"Achaemenid Architecture." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Mar. 2013. Web.06 Apr. 2013.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_architecture>.
Legacy of Ancient Persia:
Food:
Traditionally Persians ate only one meal a day. They believed that too much food would make them fat and weak. But as more deluxe produce was cultivated, they could not resist the temptation and ate a proper three meals a day.
Ancient Persians dined mostly on:

- roasted meat and birds
- citrus fruits and vegetables
- olive oil
- barley and wheat
- and also used a variety of spices in their cooking.

They also ate an abundant amount of pistachios, pomegranates, peaches, figs, and grapes.

The olive tree was the first plant to be cultivated.
At the dinner table Persians had great manners, they would not even speak a single word.
Breakfast is called sobhaneh. Lunch and dinner were called naahaar or shaam in ancient Persia.
Housing:
The homes of the wealthy Persians were luxurious; with beautiful colorful tiles and woven carpets. The rich used gold, silver, and silks to decorate the furniture. The bathrooms had hot water and small pools, from the clay pipes that brought the water indoors. The bathroom held soaps made rich in animal fats and nice scented herbs.

Tapestries and curtains hung from windows and walls.
The outside of the houses of the rich were usually made of timber, stone or brick. The ordinary citizens of Ancient Persia lived in huts that were very simple and made from mud - brick.
Family Structure:
The Persians encouraged a married life, youth would be usually married at the age of fifteen. The number of wives a Persian could marry depended on their wealth and financial status; ordinary Persians married only one wife.
The sons and daughters from age 5 - 20 were instructed to go to school, there they were taught to speak the truth and never to lie. Persian boys were taught to ride horses, hunt wild animals, and fight. The girls were taught to raise a family and a household.
The language that was used by the Ancient Persians was called Old Persian. Old Persian appears mostly on emblems and clay tablets. The language was used for practical recordings, mostly. It was used to record information, display, to tell myths and stories, poetry, and passed on the vocabulary of Old Persian to next generations.
The Old Persian Alphabet
The Persians worshipped many gods and goddesses, some include:
- Mithra the sun god
-Anahrita the Earth goddess
- Tishtrya the storm god
- Ahuramazda meaning the "Wise Lord"
The shoes that were worn consisted of
-boots
- leather shoes
- sandals

which were made from felt, animal skin, and cloth. In the winter wool was worn to keep warm and in the summer white linen was commonly used.
Men wore:

- Long robes that had lots of folds that gathered at the waist.
- Topped their hair with, arranging in tight ringlets, with a cap or turban.
Women wore:

- Beautiful long gowns
- Hair usually was braided
Women and both men wore earrings, rings, wigs, and bracelets made of imported goods such as pearls, rubies, and emeralds.
Fashion:
Like many Ancient civilizations, the Persian empire was divided into different classes. The upper class of Ancient Persia consisted of the king, nobles, and priests. The upper class was separated into four different groups, which were called ESTATES.

- The first estate held the royalty, priests and judges.

- The second estate consisted on military leaders

- The third being scribes, physicians, astronomers, and poets.

- The fourth estate was made up of wealthy landlords.

- The lower class, was the majority of Ancient Persians, the lower class was made up of laborers, serfs and slaves, and Freemen who worked for wages and chose where they worked.
King Darius 1
10 Questions:
Persian nobles wanted graceful vases, gorgeous sculptures, and magnificent materials to decorate their homes with. They reached to all ends of the empire for many types of artwork.

Lacking granite and marble the Persians used blocks of limestone or whatever they could find to make sculptures and other pieces of art.
The Persian capital of Susa was not near to any sources of stone. Instead this example of art was decorated with hundreds of figures made of brick. These were created into molds then painted with colorful glazes before they were fired in a kiln or oven.
A list of Legacies and Contributions from Ancient Persia:
- The ability to pass on a clean environment to the next generation.
- Zoroaster’s influence on other religions and beliefs. Zoroaster’s idea was that men and women could choose to do good or evil and thereby go to heaven or hell.
- An astronomer by the name of Nabu-rimanni had made accurate predictions of lunar and solar eclipses (in fifth century B.C.E). He also plotted the length of days throughout the year.
- Introduced crops such as barley and rice to many different regions.
- Passed on important vocabulary, more than 150 words from them exist today in the English language. Here are some examples: lemon, bazaar, paradise, sherbert, and magic which came from the word magi.
- Stone Carvings and statues
- Ancient Persians made many more contributions to science, agriculture, mathematics and archaeology.
I think Ancient Persia was a great culture because it made so many contributions to science, mathematics, agriculture, and archaeology. It had an influence on the buildings that are built over time, crops and plants that grow, and how we think today!
What are your opinions on Ancient Persia?
Geography:
What are the 3 specific types of terrain in Ancient Persia?
Everyday Life:
Why did Persians traditionally eat only a single meal a day?
What was the first plant to be cultivated in Ancient Persia?
Writing System:
Cultural Expressions:
Cultural Structures:
Art and Monuments:
Persia's Legacy:
What language was used by the Ancient Persians?
What did men and women in Ancient Persia usually wear?
What is the Persian god of the sun?
What is an example of a English word that the Persians invented? There are 2 answers that are correct!
Did Ancient Persia lack granite and limestone? True or false?
What was the name of the four different groupings of the upper class?
The outside of ordinary Persian's houses was made of mud-brick, true or false??
Bonus:
How do you think the Ancient Persians influenced our history and daily life??
Full transcript