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How organisations use ICT part 1
Transcript of How organisations use ICT part 1
Advertising is the promotion of goods and services.
Teaching and Learning
How schools and colleges use ICT to teach.
How business use ICT in publishing.
How organisations use ICT part 1
The usage of ICT to manage time properly.
This presentation covers the ways organisations use ICT systems and applications. Applications such as: control systems, working practices, advertising, teaching, publishing, data management, payroll applications and technical and consumer support.
A control system is a system that uses sensors, microprocessors and actuators to control certain physical conditions.
Air conditioning systems
Closed system of copper tubes.
Contains a chemical liquid.
Coils outside and inside.
Compressor - cool low pressure gas into hot high pressure gas.
Gas goes through condenser and turns into liquid.
Expansion valve evaporates liquid.
A fan blows air.
Two temperature senors.
Physical conditions are controlled by sensors. The following are sensors that can be included in a control system.
Condensing unit inside and evaporating unit outside.
Sensors monitor temperature.
Data converted -> ADC.
Microprocessor compares data.
Temperature is higher the compressor is turned on.
Temperature isn't higher the compressor is turned off.
Boiler heats the water in the system.
Water flows into a hot water cylinder.
Pump makes water flow through radiators.
Some systems have touch screens.
Data from sensor converted with an ADC.
Microprocessor compares data from sensors.
Temperature lower -> boiler and pump on.
Temperature higher -> boiler and pump off.
Uses robot arms.
Controlled by an actuator.
DC motors -> backwards & forwards.
Stepper motors -> little steps.
Precise number of stepped revolutions.
Robot arms functions
Paint cars bodies.
How robot arms work?
Computer controls the movement of the arm.
Jobs depend on the effector.
Picks parts and moves them to one place to another.
Uses pressure sensors.
Employee checks for errors using it.
Welds car parts together.
Disadvantage -> it can be dangerous.
Picks car parts.
Neither from bottom or sides.
Eg -> windscreens and sheets of metal.
Paints car bodies.
Paint is toxic.
Makes holes in car pieces for nuts, bolts, screws and rivets.
Places and tightens -> nuts, bolts, screws and rivets.
Used after paint.
Robots vs humans
Designed to perform the same task.
Get tired and bored.
Programmer guides the arm by remote control or physically.
Computers stores the sequence of movements.
Patients are monitored by sensors.
Sensors feedback to the computer -> blood pressure, pulse rate and body temperature.
Computer has pre-set values and constantly compares data with sensors.
If any body functions fall outside the pre-set values, the computer makes an alarm sound for human intervention.
Use of computer -> more accurate and monitor patients at the same time.
Robotic surgery involves using robotic arms and cameras inside a patient's body.
Robotic arms usually hold a scalpel.
Surgeon wares goggles connected to the computer to see the patient's body.
Robotic arms and cameras are controlled via a console.
When the surgeon moves it hands the robotic arms and cameras respond in real time.
Robotic surgery is more accurate but surgeon is the one in control.
Patients recover more rapidly.
Computer + microprocessors used to control a process.
Eg -> oil refining, chemical processing, car manufacture, temperature and food and drinks.
Uses ADC and DAC.
Batch Process Control
Used when specific raw materials are combined together for a specific period of time.
Eg -> Pre-packed meals.
Ingredients are measured into a large vessel and then mixed together.
Then they are heated.
The amount of each ingredient is controlled by a computer.
Batch process are used to produce small amounts each year.
Continuous Process Control
The process doesn't stop.
Eg -> fuels, chemicals and plastics.
Process control is used to produce large quantities of output every year.
Discrete process control
Start and stop process.
Eg -> car assembly and manufacturing and packaging applications.
Involves the production of discrete pieces of a product like a car wheel.
Open loop system
Looks at input signal to decide what to do.
Takes no account of the output.
There is no feedback to check if the output does what the input has ordered to do.
Can't correct errors.
Eg -> irrigation sprinkler system.
Closed loop system
Works continuously,it doesn't stop after a decision has been made.
It looks at the output to see it has done what the input has ordered.
Eg -> air coditioing system.
ontroller which is a microcomputer programmed to do a specific task.
Reads analogue and digital inputs.
Generates analogue and digital outputs.
Technology developed by NASA to carry experiments in space which can be controlled by a person.
An embedded system is the combination of microprocessors, input sensors, output actuators and the software needed to work with them.
Combines internet, the www and real time systems in one technology .
Working practices explores how the effects of ICT has changed working patterns.
Teleworking it's working from home.
Things to consider
Type of worker for teleworking. (Eg -> manages time well, are motivated, good communication skills and self-discipline).
Type of job for teleworking. (Eg -> technical jobs, marketing, proofreading documents and writing).
Less office space.
Employees feel confident.
Less in touch with employees.
Less work done.
Employees work at a distance from the office. Eg -> salesman.
Technology used: PDA, mobile phones and laptops.
ervices) is available so that employees can connect to their PC from their laptop.
Office Based Working
Work in the office for employees which aren't suitable for teleworking.
Desktop computers connected to a LAN or a WAN.
Electronic equivalent to normal conferencing.
Face-to-face calls using: Web cam, monitor, speakers, internet connection, microphone and video conferencing software like Skype.
Used in schools and businesses.
Two types: individual or group.
Linking together several phones in one call over an internet protocol called VOIP.
At least three people.
Each participant has a key they must enter after they have dialed the phone number.
Organiser has two pins: Personal and conference.
Exchange of messages between two or more people logged in an instant messaging service.
Requires user name and password.
The can send messages and reply instantly.
A fax is connected to a phone line.
Documents are scanned and send through the phone line and printed in another fax machine.
Requires the use of a modem.
Now a days is being replaced with e-mail because its cheaper, faster and you can't loose the copy unless you delete the message.
User prints the document directly to fax software which uses a modem or a broadband to send it.
The receiver either receives it in the fax machine or in the fax software and converts it into a document to store it.
Costs are lower.
Not necessary to be in the office to receive faxes.
The advertising of a specific prouct.
Eg -> Car model.
One medium -> newspaper.
Mixture -> newspaper and web page.
The advertising of the business itself so that is well known.
The business identifies what type of customer they want to attract and they build an advertising campaign based on that customer.
The business advertises their services because they don't sell products.
Eg -> insurance, government, tourism, banking, education and social services.
These types of organisations will spend the enough money to get people to know them.
Nationally and internationally.
Business build a web page hiring a web designer.
Web designer uses web authoring package.
Hardware used: scanner, microphones, speakers, video and digital cameras.
Features: multimedia, videos, pictures, animations, text, search bar and hyperlinks.
Easy to use.
Advertising on other people's websites
Cheaper than building a whole website.
These types of adverts can be blocked.
Business can advertise in an on-line directory.
Organised alphabetically and by groups.
On web sites or in monitors around the city.
Features: sound, video, animations, text, images and hyperlinks.
Used to advertise an event service or restaurant.
Used by small businesses.
Created using desktop publishing software.
Large printed piece of paper.
Placed around the city.
Eg -> bus stop.
Computer Aided Instruction
Software replaces the teacher.
Use of computer as the main method teaching.
Computer takes over the learning process.
Students do a test to see in what level the computer should start.
The software asses the students results and keeps a record of them.
Computer Aided Learning
The teacher is in control of the learning experience.
The internet takes a great part because it helps students to search for things.
Hardware: PC, DVD players, interactive whiteboards, projectors and televisions.
Computer Mediated Communications
E-mail, instant messaging and chat rooms are used.
E-mail can be used to receive and hand in tasks.
Computer Aided Assessment
Assessment can be formative or summative.
Summative -> asking questions and recording responses. A total mark is given and teacher and students are informed.
Formative -> Looking at the results of srudents to see their progress.
Examination boards use online software. Students' scripts are scanned into a computer examiners mark them.
Manual marking is done using an OMR.
Spreadsheets are used to store exam results, predicted grades, targets and attendance records of students.
Scores are plotted in graphs or showed as statistics.
Setting of the layout of the typed page.
Easy to read.
The length of each line.
Transmitting Completed Pages
Computerised Plate Making
Images from the negative are transferred to printing plates.
Ultraviolet light is allowed to pass through the film negatives to expose the printing plate.
A chemical reaction occurs allowing the light-sensitive coating on the aluminium to develop the image.
The aluminium plate is fixed to the actual printing press.
Consists of 3 cylinders.
Web offset lithography ->The roller with the plate attached has ink directed onto it and rotates against the blanket cylinder and this roller forms an image from the plate roller. The blanket roller presses against the paper causing the image to be printed.
The large sheets are cut into separate versions of the newspaper and stacked into bundles.
Approaches to good time management
Outside experts can be brought to help the business.
Identifying short and long term targets.
ICT -> Business benefit from the use of software and communication devices.
Use of software packages in time management
Orginiser packages: E-mails, contacts, tasks and calendar funtion.
Arranging workload -> Stopwatch devices that remind employees how much time they have left to complete a task.
Research and development projects -> Gantt charts are used to help plan tasks involved in a process.
A database is the collection of data.
The records are stored in order of one or more key fields.
Data is accessed in an ordered sequence.
Records are stored on tape.
Adding or deleting records requires a new file to be made called the master file.
Simple, efficient and cheap.
Indexed Sequential File
Each record has a key field.
The index consists of keys and addresses.
It's a sequential file that has an index.
A full index has an entry for every record but as there is an index we can access directly the record we want without having to go through the rest.
It's fast and provides flexibility.
The different types of payroll applications done using ICT.
Involve batch processing.
Files are stored on two magnetic tapes.
Transaction file is temporary because the information changes each week or month.
At the end of the week/month the master file is processed using the transaction file.
Computer calculates pay for each worker using number of hours worked contained in transaction file and rate per hour from the master file.
Records from the old master file are updated and written into a new tape which becomes the new master file.
Contains information from the master and transaction file.
Information like: employee number, rate of pay, national insurance number and year to date values.
The information is linked to the transaction file to create the payslip.
Most payroll software has a report generator facility.
Provides detailed payroll listings. Eg -> information about employees.
Exception reports also exist. Eg -> employee earning unusually large amount of money.
Technical and customer support
Many businesses offer customer support in which they use ICT.
Large office space with operators that respond to customers that need help.
Each operator has a desktop computer that is connected through a telephony server to the company's phone line.
Each computer has a computer telephony card and every computer is linked to a telephony communications switch.
ntegration (CTI) software is required. Integrates all aspects of the system together.
Phone calls are processed using interactive voice response software.
The CTI allows the computer to direct the phone call to an operator and also ques calls.
The CTI combines data and voice input to the system, displays the phone number of the person who's calling and has multiple dialing techniques.
CTI takes two forms: first-party control or third-party control.
Art and design work
ICT is used when creating work involved in art and design.
Designers have graphics software installed on their computers.
Used to alter the appearance of images.
Features: crop, rotate, flip. fill in with colour, 3D, remove scratches, draw shapes and add text.
Router (Internet access).
Editor sends the page to the printing plant. Two ways:
1. The page is printed and the image is burned onto light-sensitive film and then placed in a large fax.
2. Small publisher burn on a CD.