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Generative Transformational Grammar
Transcript of Generative Transformational Grammar
( TG )
Generative transformational grammar
A generative grammar, in the sense in which Noam Chomsky used the term, is a rule system formalized with mathematical precision that generates, without need of any information that is not represented explicitly in the system, the grammatical sentences of the language that it describes, or characterizes, and assigns to each sentence a structural description, or grammatical analysis. All the concepts introduced in this definition of “generative” grammar will be explained and exemplified in the course of this section. Generative grammars fall into several types; this exposition is concerned mainly with the type known as transformational (or, more fully, transformational-generative). Transformational grammar was initiated by Zellig S. Harris in the course of work on what he called discourse analysis (the formal analysis of the structure of continuous text). It was further developed and given a somewhat different theoretical basis by Chomsky.
The Language Acquisition Device, or LAD, is part of Chomsky's acquisition hypothesis. The LAD is a system of principles that children are born with that helps them learn language, and accounts for the order in which children learn structures, and the mistakes they make as they learn. Second language learning theory proposes that acquisition is possible in second and subsequent languages, and that learning programmes have to create the conditions for it.
Language Acquisition Device ( LAD )
Transformational grammar assigns a “deep structure” and a “surface structure” to show the relationship of sentences.
An abstract underlying meaning of a sentence which gives its semantic component
Actual spoken sentence that gives the proper phonological information to express the thought
use it to explain language creativity: how we are able to utter and interpret sentences we have not heard before. Creativity is made possible by the generative nature of transformational grammar. In order to create and understand newly generated sentences, we must depend on our language competence.
Phrase Structure Component
Phrase structure rules consists of a set of rules, each rule having a single symbol on the left connected by an arrow to one or more symbols on the right. The arrow can be interpreted as an instruction to rewrite the symbol appears on the left as the symbol or string of symbols that appears to the right of the arrow.
The components of TG
It has been shown in the first component that phrase structure rules expand the symbol S into a tree that is complete except that it lacks lexical items.
At the stage of transformational component, the deep structure changes into the surface structure by a series of rules called Transformational rules.
Morphophonemic rule is a rule we apply to the morphemes and its inflection to give the correct from at surface structure level.
Be+Pres = is Sing+Pres=Sings
Be+Past = was Sing+Past=Sang
Be+en = been Sing+en =Sung
or "Phrase structure tree" is a form of representation of sentences in which nodes or elements labeled by syntactic category, such as NP, VP, etc.
The notion of deep structure can be especially helpful in explaining ambiguous utterances; e.g.,“Flying airplanes can be dangerous” may have a deep structure, or meaning, like “Airplanes can be dangerous when they fly” or “To fly airplanes can be dangerous.
Lexical ambiguity such as the word "glasses"
The two sentences might be said to carry the same meaning because they are derived from the same deep structure.
Adam is eager to please.
Adam is easy to please.
The dog chased the cat.
The cat was chased by the dog.
In reference to the introduction above, the relation between the structures and the four components (or rules), according to Baker (1978) can be presented as follows:
Phrase Structure component
Sumon Ariyapittipun, Ed.d. Introduction to linguistics. Polymath, Bangkok. Page 140-154
TG is a grammar which is related between language and mind in human, especially native speaker.
Native speaker can create the language unlimitedly.
TG can describe all the grammatical sentences of a language.
Using the language is just the ability of the native to communicate meaning for understanding.
Using the language can't be perfect 100% even if the native speak because this error may depend on many factors such as wrong speaking, unfinished speaking because of being tired, exited, scared, bored, or not care.
Chomsky's theory - Psycholinguistics