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Molecules of Life

Biomolecules are the basis of life. This is the presentation biology students at CHS have for notes.

Jonathan Kao

on 30 November 2011

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Transcript of Molecules of Life

The Molecules of Life
4. Nucleic Acids
3. Proteins
2. Lipids (Fats)
1. Carbohydrates
Sugars and starches provide energy for organsims
Carbohydrates can also provide structure
Chemically, carbs are made up of C, H, and O
The ratio of C:H:O is 1:2:1
Remember the formula for glucose? 6:12:6
Count the spheres!
Black = C
White = H
Red = O
Made up of units, usually rings
One ring -
Two rings -
More rings -
Lipids (Fats)
Contrary to popular belief, you need fat
Lipids play two important roles in the body
Roles of Lipids
Lipids serve as energy storage
Lipids are a major structural component of cell membranes
Proteins are major components of your body
Proteins help build you
Proteins help make you go
Hey! Did you notice that
all these names of sugars
end in -ose?
All of those orange things are lipids!!!
After today you will be able to:
Identify the 4 basic molecules of life
Describe the function of each biomolecule
Chemically, proteins are chains of amino acids
The specific order of the amino acids gives proteins different shapes and functions
This is table sugar!
Think about this...
What are all of the different things in your body made of?
So if I need lipids, why shouldn't I just eat bacon all the time?
Saturated v. Unsaturated fats
Saturation means that all available spots are filled with a hydrogen
Unsaturated means that not all spots are filled with hydrogen
Saturated fats are like legos - they can stack really tightly
Unsaturated are bent - they cannot stack as tightly
Saturated fats are solid at room temperature and can clog your arteries

So as tasty as bacon is...you want to eat unsaturated fats which are liquid at room temp
Olive oil, both tasty and healthy!
Protein Function
Some proteins provide structure to the body
-Actin and Myosin make up your muscles
-Collagen is a connective tissue
Some proteins help your body do the things they need
-Enzymes make the chemical reactions in your body go faster
This enzyme is called catalase (or peroxidase).

It is found in your liver and turns hydrogen peroxide (which would kill you) into water and oxygen.
Nucleic Acids
Carry genetic information
Send messages to different parts of the cell
Major role in coding and making proteins
This is tRNA and plays a major role in protein synthesis.
This molecule with its characteristic double helix is Deoxyribonucleic Acid - or DNA for short.
Nucleic Acids
Chemically, nucleic acids are made up of chains of nucleotides

Nucleic acids can be single-stranded or double-stranded

What are the four major biomolecules?

What are the functions of the four biomolecules?
Notice the double bond?
This protein is ATP-Synthase.
Guess what it makes!!!
Full transcript