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Political Control in Classical Era

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Caitlin McKay

on 2 October 2014

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Transcript of Political Control in Classical Era

Imperial Rome:31 BCE - 476 CE
Han China: 206 BCE - 220 CE
Achaemenid Persia: 550 BCE - 330 BCE

Date Ranges
Empire expansion at it's Greatest
Political Control in Imperial Rome, Han China, and Achaemenid Persia during the Classical Era

By Caitlin McKay and Emma Davison
Description for Roman Empire Government
Military Power Description for Roman Empire
Key City Images
Monumental Architecture Reflecting Power of the Roman Empire
Social Structures and how the Roman government used them for political control
Methods used to maintain production of food and rewards for loyalty of elite in the Roman Empire
Republican empire at first, incorporated even more of a democracy
wealthy politicians made decisions
had written laws
people innocent until proven guilty in court
defendants had the right to challenge accuser before a judge in a court
principles of Roman law continued to shape the Mediterranean and European society
commoners had ability to elect tribunes and eventually gained even more political say
Roman empire
Persian Empire
Han Empire
Description of the Persian Empire Government
Imperial administration was use
run by educated bureaucrats
took a higher place in society than patriarchal warriors
a bureaucratic society turned to an imperial society
more administration required as roads and communication developed
used satrapies and spies to keep the political control in favor of the current ruler
Description of Han China Empire Government
Bureaucratic Empire
Relied on legalist principles
sent imperial officers to watch over his provinces and districts
levied taxes
had a lot of trade with surrounding societies
Confucianism, Daoism and Legalism formed the bureaucracies that evenutally made up the Han Dynasty's government
Confucian leaders valued kindness to all and equality between ruler and common citizens
Daoism called for propriety and to follow the cosmos and to live in harmony with nature
Legalism was not concerned with topics relating to ethics, but rather focused on military forces and agriculture
Later ruler, like Lui Bang and Han Wudi, focused the most on Confucianism for ruling the Han Dynasty
had a strong naval military
conquered large empires
had easy access to trade
weren't on the coast so they had less chance of being invaded
good treatment of conquered people helped keep peace among lower classes
Military Power Description for the Persian Empire
Military patriarchal warriors were high up in the social class
agriculture boomed because of the massive armies Persia needed to feed
Military Power Description of the Han Dynasty
military adventures caused the Empire economic strain
Used Iron for weapons and armor
Very successful
Legalism focuses helped improve China's military during the Han Dynasty
with increased military power, Warring Period of the State ceased and China's unification improved
after Legalism fall and Qin Dynasty rise, military forces disabled and fortresses burned in fear of rebellions
Trade and economics in The Roman Empire
the amount of trade caused the Empire to have commercial agriculture
People became accustomed to luxuries like exotic foods
Trade happened all over the Mediterranean Basin
Trade and Economics in the Persian Empire
standardized coin helped with economic foundation for the empire
traded along the Persian road and over sea lanes through the red sea
mostly traded for finished products and precious metals
facilitated cultural as well as commercial exchange
Trade and Economics in the Han Dynasty
traded silk textiles
Iron used for weapons and armor
paper was created and was cheaper than silk and easier to write on than bamboo
had economic difficulties and land distribution problems
During the Qin Dynasty, roads were improved for communication, and in turn, improved trade routes
Standardized coins, weights, and measurements made fair trade easier
Land distribution was supposed to help agriculture, but actually caused rebellions as debt were payed off through land and slaves become more common
Roman Empire
Persian Empire
Han Dynasty

Monumental Architecture Reflecting Power of the Persian Empire
Social Structure and How the Persian government used them for political control
Social Structure and How the Han Dynasty Government used them for Political Control
Methods used to maintain production of food and rewards for loyalty of elite in the Persian Empire
Methods used to maintain production of food and rewards for loyalty of elite in the Han Dynasty
Leaders had main control. Had administrators to help make decisions
very patriarchal society, but women from wealthy families could get education like Ban Zhou
Confucian valued education to make up honest government officials. Had great education courses for potential administrators.
with this standardized education for potential Confucian leaders and scholars, all of the leaders would rule the same way with the same values and beliefs
To support the expanding empire, imperial society, and economy in Persia, they had more of local administration to help keep order throughout the whole empire.
had one ruler and had a close counsel
many conquests lead by Persian rulers helped expand empire, requiring more administration and lead to the formation and use of Satrapies
a patriarchal society where male bureaucrats ran every day affairs
did have free classes with artisans to help indulge trade
bureaucrats who helped run daily affairs received a prominent and comfortable place in society
free classes meant artisans and craftsmen could make better trades and could feel more fulfilled in their lives (but were still in low social class)
many new, conquered people farmed and paid taxes of the harvest to the government
with irrigation and metallurgy advances, agriculture increased which rose trade and could sustain a higher population
as finer crafts began, like silk and paper production, metallurgy also increased, creating easier agricultural techniques
Many males were forced into working on the Great Wall and on the emperor's tomb, which meant agriculture was left to slaves, conquered people, and the women left at home. Women had no voice and had to obey husbands, fathers, and even sons.
harsh ways of government forcing people into labor, did not make for loyal citizens.
Monumental Architecture Reflecting Power of the Han Dynasty
Government gave protection to lower classes in return for taxes
Republic for Rome did not work when imperial expansion hit, social tensions arose, and the need for administration became apparent
valued physical aspects and had entertainment to keep citizens content
land distribution was unfair between classes, wealthy land owners gained land and used slaves for their own wealth and for a more abundant harvest
some taxes paid to government in return for protection
wealthy landowners who paid taxes, also received some political standings
increased trade through Mediterranean helped economy, agriculture, specified crafts, and merchants
Xi'an, China is where Shi Huang Di's tomb is located
Persepolis is where the new capital of Persia was built. Great significance of loyalty to traditional Persian among citizens and lavish palaces built here
The Roman Empire expanded out from the Mediterranean Basin.
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