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Megan Gallagher

on 19 November 2013

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Transcript of JAPAN

Geography, History to Meiji Restoration
By Courtney Dietsche
Post Meiji - WWII
Megan Gallagher
WWII - Present
Christian Grundfor
How did Japan Modernize so quickly without Westernizing?
1931 - 1938
September 1931 Japan invades Manchuria

1935 Soviet Union declares Germany and Japan enemies

December 1936 pact made between Germany and Japan

December 1937 Japan invades Nanjing
"Rape of Nanjing"

1938 Canton captured.
"New Order" “Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere.”
Political Overview
1500 - Weak Imperial Rule
1600 - Taken over by Tokugawa Shogunate
1868 - Meiji Restoration returns emperor to power
1947 - WWII ended, constitutional democracy
Economics Overview
1939 - 1945
1940 - September Japan became an Axis Power
Vietnam captured

1941 - Neutrality act with Russia
Hideki Tojo became Prime minister
December 7 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor

1945- April, America lands on Okinawa
August 6 & 9 America bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki
August 9 the Soviet Union joined the war against Japan

August 14 Japan surrenders.
Fairly little growth during Isolationist period
Rapid industrialization afterward
Imported raw materials, exported finished products
Economic devastation from war
Rebuilt by Allies
Sengoku Period
(Warring States)
Social Classes
Feudal Period
Constant wars between Daimyo
Unification of Japan
"Three Heroes"
Oda Nobunaga,
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi's Rule
Tokugawa Shogunate
(1603 - 1867)
Sengoku Period and the Tokugawa Shogunate
Post Meiji
Christianity and Tokugawa Shogunates
1550s – Jesuit missionaries welcomed by the daimyo
 Nobunaga and Hideyoshi worked with the Christians to undermine Buddhism
1590s – daimyo start to end Christian missions
1614- effort to end all Christianity in Japan begins
Customs and Traditions
The traditional form of greeting is the bow, although foreigners are expected to shake hands
It can be seen as impolite to introduce yourself, if possible wait to be introduced
It is considered respectful to add the suffix "san" to someone's name, and especially respectful to add "sama"
Remove shoes before entering a home in Japan and put on the slippers left at the doorway
The oldest person in a group is always revered and honored.
Kimono and Yukata
Japanese Society
Extremely homogenous people 99% Japanese
Family is the basic unit of society
Respect for your elders, social ranking
Language few sounds, written (3 alphabets)
Group harmony, wa
Saving "face"
Omote and Ura

"the way of the gods"; state religion up until 1945,
form of polytheism, focuses on worshiping nature, no absolute truth or right and wrong.
Shinto cannot be traced to its beginnings, because until the 5th century the myths and rituals were transmitted orally
today is used mostly for tradition and ceremonial purposes
it is said that the emperors were descendants of the sun goddess
used primarily for political reasons
Break of Isolationism
Chinese and Japanese relations
Information, Ideas
Mongol Invasion
1600 - with shogunate class reforms, merchant class rose
Isolationist policies slowed economic growth
1889 - classes declared equal, respect for merchant class grew
Western tech adopted where it suited their goals
Led to rapid industrial growth and urbanization
1869 - 1930
1869 - Westernization begins, Yukichi Fukuzawa

1876 - Treaty Kanghwa

1882, 1894 Japan, Korean, Chinese war

1902 - Japan given rights in Korea in London Treaty

1904 - 1910 Japan, Korean, Russia war

1914 - Japan joins WWI against Austria, Turkey and Germany

1924 - Exclusion Act
Pre-war Economy
How Technology Globalized Japan
- Technology is an asset for the globalization process of a country
- Allows a country to communicate, trade, produce goods, and grow more efficiently
- Japan made changes in government to allow technology to grow
Historical Events that Started Technology Development
Meiji Restoration
- American Commodore Matthew Perry introduced Japan to trading with world powers (United States, United Kingdom, France, and Russia)
by Josh Mesward
-When Japan witnessed the technology that the Americans brought, the country started to change government policies to produce factories
Post War Period
- After World War II, the United States became Japan’s protectorate, which allowed Japan to invest in science and technology
- Policies set by the Ministry of Internal Trade and Industry (MITI) started in 1949 and provided financial support for science and technology
Used lighter industries (textiles) to help fund heavier industries (steel, shipbuilding)
1930s- hit hard by Great Depression, no market for exports
Used conflicts in Manchuria to increase military-industrial production
Helped pull them out of depression
Major Companies:
Post-War Economy

By: Jimmy McFadden
Post restoration:
Major westernization and change of government, but not ideals.

Gained international political,military, and economic power.

First Asian power to be included in with European powers

Late stages of colonialist ideas
World War 2
Bombing damage from the war
Economy devastated, factories and infrastructure destroyed
Allied Occupation
Rebuilt Japan
1952- Occupation ended

Extremely Valued
Instilled into the Japanese youth from day 1
Ranked in the top 5 in OECD Countries (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)
School 6 days a week (6 hours a day)
6-3-3-4 system, first nine years are compulsory
96% nationwide go to high school and 46 % on to university
" Not one of our religions is capable of acting as the central axis of the nation... Shinto is a learning based on the teachings of our imperial ancestors, but its power as a religion to direct the minds of the people is weak. In our country the only thing that can be used as a central axis is the imperial house... we must focus our minds on using this point, raising up imperial rule, and striving that it not be restrained" - Itō Hirobumi, Prime Minister, 1888, (opening the constitutional convention that drafted the Imperial Constitution).

Bowl of rice (gohan), a bowl of miso soup (miso shiru), pickled vegetables (tsukemono) and fish or meat.
Meat consumption was banned until 1870's
Chicken and Beef
Staple food
Thousands of varieties grown
Post-Occupation Economy

Religion played a major role in keeping Japan’s culture from Westernizing
Shinto and Buddhism are the two major religions today, secular thinking is most popular
Connection between church and state
Lack of prominence of Christianity

Oda Nobunaga
1560 - allies with Tokugawa Ieyasu
1568 - Enters Kyoto
Removed Daimyo's taxes
improved flow of goods
Persecuted "Pure Land" Buddhists
Automotive Industry
-Japan has produced companies like Toyota, Nissan, Subaru, Mitsubishi, Honda, Yamaha, Mazda…
- Many Japanese car companies have reverse engineered vehicles coming from other countries like America or Great Britain
Electronics Industry
- Japanese electronic companies include Canon, Hitachi, JVC, Kenwood, NEC, Nikon, Nintendo, Panasonic, Sony, Pioneer
- After World War II, Japan realized how important electronics were and heavily invested in research and development
- Japan has always been innovative with electronics and still remains a leader
1955-Economy back to prewar levels
No major standing army, US provides that
Record economic growth (10% a year)
1991-economic depression
Industries that Stimulated Technology Growth
Machinery Industry
- Japanese machinery companies include Daikin, Fujitech, Hitachi, Matsuura, and Yamaha
- Japan has developed the reputation of producing accurate, reliable parts that are used in industrial processes
Other Notable Exports of Japan
- Iron and Steel
- Plastics
- Organic Chemicals
- Ships, and boats
- Rubber and rubber articles

Zack Gertig
Shinto Shrine
Itō Hirobumi
Federal Government
Daimyo Road Tax
Samurai "Castle towns"
Forced visits
Disarmament of peasants
Lack of Social mobility
Industries that Stimulated Technology Growth
One of the most celebrated
individuals of Japanese History
1600-Isolated themselves from exploitation by early European traders
1870-realized that to be a global power they couldn’t isolate themselves anymore
Westernized where it was useful to them
Fairly consistent government even through changes
Adapted themselves to global economy well
Rebuilt quickly after war
The Meiji Restoration
Geographically isolated
Susceptible to natural disasters
Within Diamond's Parallels
1500 -Meiji
Feudal System and Isolationism set the foundations for a culturally distinctive country
Post Meiji - WWII
Major westernization and power growth.
Post WWII - Present
Rapid reconstruction after war.
Quick adaptation to global economy.
Religion kept Japan from westernizing their culture
The group, common good, is more important the the individual.
Social ranking, older the better
Japanese government policies allowed for technology to grow at a high rate
Technology made Japan more efficient at communicating and producing

Popular Culture
Anime/Manga and Gaming and TV
Leisure time
Western Sports
Martial arts

Lee, J. (2007). Shinto in Japan. Shinto In Japan, 1.
PARAMORE, K. (2012). Political Modernity and Secularization: Thoughts from the Japanese Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Journal Of Religious History, 36(1), 19-30.
Ping, Y., & Lili, P. (2010). From "Goodness" in Chinese Confucianism to "Truth" in Japanese Confucianism. Asian Social Science, 6(3), 108-112.
Shinto. (2013). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1.
Yamagishi, K. (2008). Freedom of Religion, Religious Political Participation, and Separation of Religion and State: Legal Considerations from Japan. Brigham Young University Law Review, 2008(3), 919-940
samurai. (2013). In
World History: The Modern Era

Retrieved November 19, 2013, from http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
Boshin Civil War. (2013). In
World History: The Modern Era
. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
"Japanese Charter Oath (1868)."
World History: The Modern Era
. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 19 Nov. 2013.
dancing cabinet. (2013). In
World History: The Modern Era.
Retrieved November 19, 2013, from http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
Japanese Imperial Diet. (2013). In
World History: The Modern Era.
Retrieved November 19, 2013, from http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
Toyotomi Hideyoshi. (2013). In
World History: The Modern Era.
Retrieved November 19, 2013, from http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
Oda Nobunaga. (2013). In
World History: The Modern Era
. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
Tokugawa Ieyasu. (2013). In
World History: The Modern Era
. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
Hiroshige's depiction of Fujikawa. Image. Corel. (2013). In
World History: The Modern Era.
Retrieved November 19, 2013, from http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
Tokugawa Shoguns of Japan, 1603-1868. (2013). In
World History: The Modern Era.
Retrieved November 19, 2013, from http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
Imperial rule - Country technically ruled by emperor, daimyo's and samurai actually in power
Shogunate - Tokugawa takes over, feudal military dictatorship
Meiji Restoration- restores emperor to power, abolished samurai and class structure
Post-WWII - emperor made a figurehead by Allies, new constitution implemented

Centralized Bureaucratic Government
Shift in Social Classes
New roles of Daimyo
Samurai Class shift
Rise of Merchant class
Foreign Relations
extremely limited foreign trade

Post WWII and Confucianism
Separation of church and state due to the establishment of a liberal democracy
Buddhism and Shinto remain the two prominent religions
Culture is influenced more by Confucianism
Today Japan is mostly secular

Oda Nobunaga, Pictured

Religions Effect on Culture
Today Japan is mostly secular, Confucionism gives them their values
Buddhism are prominent and coexist easily
Shinto is primarily a part of Japanese culture as tradition and for ceremonial reasons
Mostly a lifestyle rather than a source for truth

Values “goodness” and harmony within society
Focuses on society rather than the individual
People should not cause trouble in society to seek their personal interests
People should seek to contribute to society
Secular worldviews

Acts of the Shogunate
Overview of Important Tokugawa Shogunate Policies
Expelled Portuguese Missionaries
Isolationist Policies
only a few Chinese and Dutch traders allowed at Nagasaki
Ienari Tokugawa
Shogun 1787-1837
corruption, luxury
Kansei Reforms (1789-1801)
restrictions on Urban Migration
attempts at reducing famine conditions
suppressing the Merchant Class
Ieyoshi Tokugawa (1837-1853)
Arrival of the Black Ships
Courtney Dietsche, Megan Gallagher,
Christian Grundfor, Josh Mesward,
Jimmy McFadden and Zach Gertig

1867 - Emperor dies, Meiji succeeds
The Emperor Meiji
"Enlightened Rule"
disagrees with bakufu government
Boshin Civil War
Shogun and bakufu surrender Edo (Tokyo) in 1868
Goverment Reform
Imperial Diet
Emperor's Role
Japanese Charter Oath (1858)
Dancing Cabinet
Full transcript