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Journalism and Society
Transcript of Journalism and Society
What is journalism supposed to do?
Where is journalism going? Presentation What is journalism? Stuart Adam defines journalism as: Journalism as an Art Form “Journalism is a form of expression that is an invention of a creation, a product of the imagination” “The World is born in our imaginations, nature has no objective existence, the experience of nature is the work of the Imagination” Imagination with a Capital "I" And Journalism is a medium through which we express our imaginations If Journalism is a comment on the “here and now” taking place in the present public sphere THEN Putting these two thoughts together we understand that journalism expresses our cultural identity Adam’s opinion:
Journalism is an art form, involving the “application of values we use to judge things and those values are reflected in the selection of subjects and in the judgements conferred by journalists on how well the world they reveal is working.” Journalism is Art Rational Individualism: the world is made up of individuals and their rational calculations
Sociological: impulses which make individuals act
Individual but not rational (think Freud)
Cultural: human acts can be understood in light of conscious motives and unconscious motives The Principle of Meaning Human behaviour influences our story-telling Practitioners can be broken
up into two groups: Journalists and Their Style Styles of Journalism: 1) Invent within invention
2)Bureaucrats reproduce the invention without invention the bulletin
the announcement News on news judgement
Reporting or evidentiary method
Method of interpretation or meaning The Principles of Design P. J. O'Rourke: American political satirist, journalist, writer, and author. Journalism as a Craft A necessity? "If you were a working class or lower-middle-class kid -- even as late as [in] my era growing up in the 1950s -- and you liked to read and you didn't like to get up real early in the morning and lift heavy things, you basically had two choices. You could become a newspaper reporter or you could become a priest."
-O'Rourke, June 2010 “But you always knew that what you were doing was a trade, like brick-laying. And like brick-laying it's a very difficult trade at times. It takes skill. It takes experience. But your job was simply to be the public rubberneck.” Craft influenced by human behavior
human behavior influencing the craft? Adam VS. O'Rourke If there are two sides to the argument, then what is the right way to teach the study of journalism? The Education of Journalism Moving back to Adam's original question and critique of Journalism education, it is evident that he feels journalism as an academic field belongs in the humanities What is Journalism supposed to do? Nicholas Berthelot Lemann is dean and Henry R. Luce professor at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism in New York City.
Lemann is from New Orleans and he graduated from Harvard University in 1976, but has never attended a school of journalism. He is a journalist, editor, and author of several books on 20th century United States history Pushing the conversation a bit further we ask, can journalism be taught in a classroom? Brad and Angelina Cultural vs. Individual Imagination Mathrubhumi.com "Shit Happens" Vice President Joe Biden Image credit: The Daily Caller - Michael Schudson, Why Democracies Need an Unlovable Press “Journalists are supposed to be institutionalized outsiders even though they have in fact become institutionalized insiders.” Marketplace of Ideas A cover from the National Review A cover from The Nation A Marketplace for Ideas A cover from Reason Magazine A cover from The Atlantic Photo originally published in the Washington Post Media as a Watchdog Image credit: Toronto Star Image credit to Jimmy Jeong of the Edmonton Journa. The First Amendment “rests on the assumption that the widest possible dissemination of information from diverse and antagonistic sources is essential to the welfare of the public, that a free press is a condition of a free society.” Associated Press v. United States (1945) Justice Hugo Black Democracy needs “unfettered interchange of ideas for the bringing about of political and social changes desired by the people.” Roth v. United States (1957) Justice William Brennan “…the press is free to do battle against secrecy and deception in government.” “On the Press,” Hasting’s Law Journal Justice Potter Stewart The Sponsorship Scandal Where is Journalism Going? Newspaper Crisis
Siles and Boczkowski (2011) A) The "Death of the Newspaper" and the Rise of the Online Media Prominent factors behind decline:
Technological Wider set of tools for dissemination of content
Functional definition of online news-media
Hypertextuality Pros ‘Death of Newspapers’ Resources perspective
Effects on investigation and analysis
Re-prioritization in the newsroom Cons “Online journalism, particularly online journalism that is not sponsored by major print and television media, has so far shown little capacity for, or interest in, making the kind of large investments in investigation and analysis that make conventional media, especially newspapers, invaluable for democracy” (Shudson 17) Vos, Craft, and Ashley (2011)
”New Media, Old Practices”
“Transparency is privileged over objectivity, connection over detachment”
Mediaite, WorldNetDaily, BigJournalism
Stability of journalistic practices B) Journalism ‘turned-in-on-itself’ ’Watchblogs’ and media criticism “[Our sites] will continue to fight the mainstream media – New York Times, Washington Post, LA Times, CBS, ABC, MSNBC, and CNN – who have repeatedly, and under the guise of objectivity and political neutrality, promoted a blatantly left-of-centre, pro-Democratic party agenda.” (Andrew Breitbart, creator of BigJournalism.com in 2009) “He has no respect for actual journalism, seeking to turn the field into a province defined solely by partisanship and politically potent smears. Any reporter who cares about their craft should recognize that at his core, Breitbart would be all too happy to see them out of a job.”
(John V. Santore, writing for Media Matters in 2009)
Returning to Stuart’s disconnect between journalistic education and practice
”Teaching journalists to save the profession”
Echoing Shudson: reliance on official and institutional sources
Journalistic identities: professional or critical? Reform: media newsrooms or media classrooms? C) Journalism education Addressing the ‘Professional Crisis’ CONCLUSION 1. Does the emergence of ‘new media’, both in terms of the blogosphere and mainstream online news-media, represent a step closer to Stuart’s ideal of Journalism-as-Imagination? Or does it further erode journalistic practice?
2. Do you believe that ‘media-watchdog’ sites effectively hold mainstream news organizations to account? Or are they simply another partisan tool that degrades objectivity?
3. Do you agree that the best solution to the ‘professional crisis’ currently afflicting journalism lies in education? Or does it have to come from the top-down (i.e. from within established news organizations)? Is there a need for ‘professional certification’ in journalism? Questions