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Diversity in Society and Schools

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John Powell

on 5 February 2014

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Transcript of Diversity in Society and Schools

Chapter 3: Diversity in Society and Schools

Race and Ethnicity
American Indians and Alaska natives are only indigenous ethnic groups in US
Multicultural Education
Diversity, social justice and equality are the basis for multicultural education, but multicultural education is not completely accepted.
Socioeconomic Status
Sexual Orientation
Religious and cultural groups believe sexual orientation to be a lifestyle choice. This belief results in legislature and doctrines directed at forcing compliance to heterosexual orientation.
Miscommunication between teacher and student can be due to ethnicity or class decoding or a lack of linguistic talent.
Almost 20% of population over six years old has a disability.
Religion has great influence on a family's lifestyle, values and children's socialization providing guidance regarding gender roles, marriage, friendships, child-rearing, and political stances.
R. Rhodes, J. Perez Palma, J. Powell
US citizens identify themselves by their panethnic membership
Not a scientific concept, but a social construct for identifying and sorting people
Our personal ideas on race derived from experiences with our own racial groups
Skin color is a signifier of race
White is considered the norm for which individuals of other races are compared
A teacher's inability to recognize or confront racist policies will ramify in the students of differing races generating distrust
Family origin is most practiced determination of ones ethnicity
Ethnic identity is strengthened through association with other members of ones ethnic group
Ethnic studies programs established in colleges, universities and high schools in early 70s
US Census Bureau population data flawed in ethnic diversity. Inaccuracies stem from combined panethnic classifications and magnitude of ethnicities.
US "the land of the immigrants"
American Indians and Alaskan Eskimos were indigenous
African Americans involuntary immigrants through slave trade
Latinos immigrated through Texan annexation and migration for economic issues. Today more Mexicans legally migrate to US than any other group
Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Education
Academic achievement disparities exist for different racial and ethnic groups

Students of color attend schools where safety is an issue and the classes are usually higher in student numbers than those of white students.
Chinese, Japanese and Filipinos migrated to US as labor providers for gold mining and railroads. Chinese Americans largest Asian ethnic group in US with Asian Indians following.
Europeans comprised the largest group of US immigrants for the three centuries post Columbus's discovery of the Americas
Today immigration is so prevalent that at least one in five students has at least one foreign born parent
Socioeconomic status (SES) - a family's standard of living
Social Stratification
Class Structure
Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement
Social stratification is defined by wealth, income, occupation and education
Social mobility in US is possible but difficult without being born into wealth
Families divided into classes based on their economic level
Working class "blue collar" are manual labor workers
Middle class - those perceiving themselves at not rich or poor ($38,551 - $100,000)
Upper class - wealthy a socially prominent families. Top 1%
US government defined poverty as total family of four annual earnings of $23,050 or less
In 2009 14.3 percent of the population was at or below poverty level
Children, the elderly, and people of color are disproportionately in poverty
Socioeconomic status plays major role in the manner families/students live.
Socioeconomic status is determined by income, wealth, occupation, and education.
Higher status predicts greater prestige and enhanced advantages for status holder.
Higher status students score higher on achievement tests.
Greater than 57 million US residents use a language other than English when at home with Spanish being the most prevalent.
Language Diversity
Dialect Diversity
Education for Language Diversity
Those ESL students are not just learning English, but adjusting to the local culture, and learning other core subjects simultaneous.
Majority of US is English speaking with some bilingual and multilingual speaking English at work switching to native language at home or in social groups.
Educational policies and political agendas discourage languages other than English for instruction.
American Sign Language is employed by about 0.2% of the population and can be important to hearing impaired as more than a hearing aid but as an identity characteristic.
Bilingual and two-way immersion programs use both English and native language. Transitional bilingual program starts with native then gradually switch to English. The second bilingual uses the a second language for instruction.
Popular approaches to language instruction all instruct using English.
Content-Based ESL and Sheltered Instruction
Both methods teach academic subjects while teaching English
Structured English Immersion
Similar to sheltered instruction but with all students ELLs
Pull-Out Programs
ELLs removed from regular class to teach English
Newcomer programs are engineered for large classes where the students have little or no English experience.
The major difference between genders is the manner adults respond to them.
Differences Between Females and Males
Gender Equity in Education
Title IX
Gender-specific behaviors are typically expressed in the classroom, girls quiet, obedient, teacher friendly, boys rowdy and less attentive.
1972 Higher Education Amendments requires all federally funded colleges to provide equal educational opportunities to female students. Success of this legislation is demonstrated in the law profession. In 1972 7% graduates were female, 2009 46% law degrees were awarded to females.
Some researchers theorize that gender differences are brain hemisphere development related.
Society treatment of the genders constitutes a major gender difference, males head of household and higher status employment positions.
In school, girls and boys behave differently and have varying performances based on subject. Girls excel in reading, boys higher in math.
Single gender classes allow teachers to use learning styles and cultural experiences optimal for that gender resulting in improved performance.
Different instructional strategies are employed in gender-equitable education in order to improve all student performance.
Female participants in high school and college sports has increased 10 fold and 6 fold respectfully since passing of Title IX.
Being member of LGBTQ could be devastating to a family which believes sexual orientation is a wrong choice.
Sexual Identity
Supporting LGBTQ Students
Students perceived as gay are harassed, harassment victim suicides in media has focused attention on the seriousness of this issue.
Judicial decisions reinforce safety in schools, schools must be intolerant of such harassment.
Only 57% of students with disabilities earn a HS diploma.
Inclusion - full integration of all students in general education classrooms.
Disproportionate Placements
Response to Intervention
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires students with disabilities be provided with a free and appropriate public education.
Response to Interventions (RTI) - a multitiered instructional model for identification and monitoring of special education students and their progress.
Teacher expected to follow individualize instruction plans (IEP) for students with disabilities.
Goal is to provide students with disabilities the same opportunities for academic learning as other students.
Both students with disabilities and those without benefit from inclusion.
High percent of minorities, ESL and low income students are in special education classes.
Some educators recommend students to special programs in order to prevent suspected classroom disruptions.
The three tiers consist of (1) instruction for all students in general education, (2) small group instruction for students struggling, (3) individualized instruction for students requiring intensive instruction.
Religious Identity
Diversity of religion in US is increasing greatly especially in the past few decades. This increase is due mainly to non-Western immigrants and the diversity includes religions such as Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism.
Historically, Christianity was the foundation of early public education. The Bible was gradually removed from public education as the curriculum became more secular.
Some religious groups believe theirs is the only correct or legitimate religion, other groups recognize that many religion diversity is due to offshoots and accept the diversity.
Major US religions are Christian (~75%), Jews, Buddhists, Muslims compose ~4%, ~16% are atheists or agnostics.
For many, religion determines their cultural identity. Most social activities are linked to their religion. In rural areas the church is the center of social and community activities.
Families content when schools reflect their religions major values, but these families will become aggressive if school activities conflict with their religious values.
Teachers can teach religions as long as they do not promote or denigrate any particular religion nor force participation in a religious activity.
The general public has little knowledge of religions other than their own. This ignorance may contribute to the religious intolerance, anti-Semitic and Islamophobia observed in today's society.
Two views on multicultural education, (1) it will unify and strengthen the nation, (2) it will promote diversity dividing the nation and denigrate Western tradition.
Incorporating Diversity
Ensuring Equality
Teaching for Social Justice
Women, low income families, and minority ethnic groups have historically fought for equal education. Brown vs Board of Education laid groundwork for multicultural education.
"Schools reflect the inequities of the broader society." In order to overcome this issue the buildings, environment, and ratio of students participating in all programs must be equal thus providing an equal educational opportunity.
Social justice hinges on how one helps those less advantaged. Educational social justice requires that all students receive equal access to a high quality education.

Historically resources for education are not distributed equally to all groups.

Multicultural education helps students deal with social issues, racisms, sexisms, classisms and other inequities in our society.

Teachers and students who undertake social justice in their classroom provide multicultural education and aid in reconstructionism. They are making the world better.
Culturally responsive teaching is accomplished through both understanding the students cultures and the student individually, developing report, respect and trust. Teachers must demonstrate genuine concern for all their students.
Teaching a lesson from multiple perspectives enhances the student's ability to listen to others and analyze the data to form their own views.
The effective teacher is capable of explaining the concept in varying ways so as to relate it to the student in manners meaningful to the student, relating directly to the students own life experiences and culture.
All students must have voice, ability and desire to listen to all participants, and patience with all others in order to incorporate cultural diversity in their education.
To obtain equality of results, our focus must be on ensuring student learning, not just promoting students to another grade.
Students recognize, praise, admire and perform better for teachers who demonstrate fairness and caring.

Most teachers do not set out to discriminate however our society is so ingrained with discrimination practices that teachers may not recognize they are practicing discrimination until there are overt signs.

Teacher reflection helps to identify and eliminate such practices.
Our stereotypes views of race bestow positive attributes and high status on our own race and negative attributes or lower status on others.
Both methods teach academic subjects while teaching English in a group setting of both ELLs and English speaking students
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