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A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe
Transcript of A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe
Involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor for access to land.
The Church: Political and Spiritual Power
Popes follow Roman organization
New Economic and Urban Vigor
Charlemagne and His Successors
Charles Martel: responsible for defeating the Muslims in the battle of Tours in 732; the victory can be accounted to Arab exhaustion and over-extension than to Carolingian strength.
This defeat helped confine the Muslims to Spain and, along with the Byzantine defeat of the Arabs in the same period, preserved Europe for Christianity
Postclassical western Europe was hit hard by Roman collapse, though the Catholic church advanced and a new empire briefly surfaced. After about 900, agriculture, trade, and politics revived with feudalism and the church shaping political development.
Christian culture dominated European philosophy and art, but it generated both change and some conflict
While merchant capitalism gained ground in western Europe, other economic values predominated.
Key characteristics of western Europe began to shift after 1300, with new problems of overpopulation and disease.
Stearns, Peter N. Seventh Edition World Civilization The Global Experience. 7th ed. N.p.: Pearson Education, n.d. Print.
Reading and Note Taking Study Guide
A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe
By: Alycia Parker and Hannah Solomon
Feudal Monarchies and Political Advances
military service for land
Some lords emerged more powerful, using the feudal system to build their power
e.g. Captain Kings of France
Developed bureaucracies, states
William the Conqueror
1066, Norman conquest of England
centralized government (monarchy)
established administrative system based on sheriffs and courts
European feudalism inhibited the development of strong central states, but gradually reduced purely local warfare
Stages of Postclassical Development
The Manorial System
Frequent invasions made it difficult to develop a durable/stable government and economy.
Vikings: Seagoing Scandinavian raiders from Sweden, Denmark, and Norway who disrupted coastal areas of western Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries.
in-kind labor for produce
serfdom (800s) -->
serfs were peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the middle ages; they could not be bought or sold and they retained essential ownership of their own houses and land
During the centuries of recovery after the Roman empire’s collapse in the 6th century, the Catholic church was the only extensive example of solid organization
The Pope in Rome was the top authority. Regional churches were headed by bishops.
Charles the Great (Charlemagne)
800, crowned emperor
copied Roman administration
843, Treaty of Verdun
Holy Roman emperors
ruled Italy and Germany
Western Europe proved to have strong cultural unity, initially centered in Catholic Christianity, but with pronounce political divisions.
No single language united this civilization.
surplus, wealth, population growth
New agricultural techniques developed from contacts with eastern Europe and with Asian raiders into eastern Europe
The new mold-board plow and the three-field system were crucial gains
Moldboard: Heavy plow that permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils
During the 10th century, Viking raids began to taper off, partly because regional governments became stronger, and partly because Vikings became Christianized and began to settle down
Europe’s economic and urban surge helped feed formal cultural lift
Middle Ages: The period in western European history from the decline and fall of the Roman Empire until the 15th century.
The West remained politically divided and diverse
Political centralization remained far short of Chinese levels
The power of the church continued to limit political claims because the state was not supposed to intrude on matters of faith except in carrying out decisions of the popes or bishops
parliaments: bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult with their vassals
three estates: church, nobles, and urban leaders
: The three social groups considered most powerful in Western countries; church, nobles, and urban leaders.
Religious Reform and Evolution
Gregorian reform, 11th century
Based in monasteries
Separation of secular and religious spheres
Mendicants, 13th century
St. France, St. Clare, St. Dominic
The Catholic church went through several periods of decline and renewal
Several reform movements fought secularism
Reform minded popes, such as Gregory VII tried to purify the church and free it from interference by feudal lords
While governments still influenced religious affairs, a network of church courts developed to rule on matters of religious law and bring heretics to trial and occasionally to execution
This was the origin of recurrent Western beliefs in church-state separation
military service for land
some lords emerged more powerful
Developed bureaucracies, states
William the conqueror
Centralized government (sheriffs, courts)
The Crusades revealed a distinctive expansionist spirit in Europe that warrants attention suggesting a more aggressive interest in the wider world than the other emerging societies were demonstrating
Limited Sphere for Women
Urban women played important roles in local commerce, but often found themselves hemmed in male-dominated organizations.
The veneration of Mary and other female religious figures gave women real cultural prestige.
In some respects, women in the West had higher statuses than their sisters under Islam
→ By the late Middle Ages, a literature arose that stressed women’s roles as the assistants and comforters to men, listing supplemental household tasks and docile virtues as women’s distinctive sphere.
Patriarchal structures were taking deeper root.
The increasing complexity of medieval social and economic life may have had one final effect, which is familiar from patterns in other agricultural societies: new limits on the conditions of women.
The West's Expansionist Impulse
Population growth spurred the expansionist impulse, as did the memory of Rome’s lost greatness and the righteous zeal provided by Christianity.
The “reconquest” of Spain escalated by the 11th century, as Christian forces pushed into central Spain, conquering the great Muslim center of Toledo
From 11th century, into east Germany, Poland, Iberia
made the trend of the Christian offensive clear
Northern Christian states
Vikings --> crossed Atlantic
Crusades --> called by Pope Urban II in 1095
new contact with Islam
most dramatic expansionist move involved the great Crusades against the Muslim control of the Holy Land
showed the aggressive spirit of the western Middle Ages at their height.
The High Middle Ages
Postclassical western civation reached its high point during the 12th and 13th centuries.
Growing dynamism of western Europe’s population, agriculture, and cities led to a series of creative tensions
Feudal political structures, derived from local and personal allegiances, were balanced by emerging central monarchies
Unquestionable authority of the church and the cultural dominance of Christianity
A social order and economy, based primarily on agriculture and labor of serfs, came to terms with important cities, merchants, and some new opportunities even for ordinary farmers
in-kind labor for produce
The Medieval Church
Let's take flight and journey into the Middle Ages
Turkish army invaded the Holy Land
forgiveness of sins
thirst for excitement
showed aggressive spirit
greater thirst for goods
debate in universities; scholasticism
scholasticism: Dominant medieval philosophical approach, so called because of its base in the schools or universities; based on the use of logic to resolve theological problems.
Greek texts reach Europe via Muslim scholars
vernacular, secular, literature
Song of Roland
Geoffrey Chaucer --> Canterbury Tales
Gothic style of architecture is developed
Especially monastic buildings
New Strains in Rural Life
The improvements in agriculture after 900 C.E. brought new importance to rural life
Although manorialism remained in place in many areas, some peasants were able to shake off the most severe constraints of it.
From the late middle-ages until the 19th century, tension between lords and serfs produced a recurrent series of peasant-landlord battles in Western society.
On the whole, the lives of western peasants improved between 900 and 1300. Landlord controls were less tight. Although western agriculture was not yet particularly advanced technologically, it had improved considerably over early medieval levels.
Western Culture in the Postclassical Era
Growth of Trade and Banking Key Concepts
Mediterranean zone joined with North Sea, Baltic
Money replaced barter
Banking, insurance merged
Northern Germany, southern Scandinavia
Cities joined to encourage trade
Merchants relatively free, but relatively low status
The Decline of Medieval Society
Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years’ War, which sputtered into the mid-15th century, lasted even longer than its name and initially went very badly for France-- a sign of new weakness in the French monarchy
As war dragged on, kings reduced their reliance on the prancing forces of the nobility in favor of paid armies of their own
After about 1300 onward, key sources of Western vitality threatened to disappear
Medieval agriculture could no longer keep up with growth
land had been used up
no major new technological gains to compensate
caused severe famines and a decline in population levels until the end of the century
in 1348, reduced Europe’s population by ⅓
Plague came from Asia and the Middle East, due to trade contacts, but the results were devastating.
Urban growth allowed more specialized manufacturing and commercial activities, which in turn promoted greater trade.
Banking was introduced to the west to facilitate the long distance-exchange of money and goods.
This new form of exchange, which was clearly capitalistic, upset many Christian moralists who preferred a more direct, traditional ways of society.
Capitalism- economic system based on profit-seeking ownership and investment
Wrap Up: Global Connections and Critical Themes
During the Middle Ages, western Europe developed something of a love-hate relationship with the world around it
In the early days, Europe was at the mercy of invasions from the Vikings in the north or various nomadic groups pushing in from central Asia
Most Europeans saw Islam as a dangerously false religion and an obvious threat
Europeans actively copied a host of features from Islam, however, during this same time period-- everything from law to science and art
Review of Chapter 11
In which of the following ways was the medieval West NOT like other civilizations?
a. The medieval period saw the spread of civilization outside the Mediterranean zone core to new areas in northern Europe.
b. New religious beliefs accompanied the spread of civilization.
c. The medieval West remained culturally backward, compared to other civilizations.
d. Western Europe participated in the emerging international community.
Following the fall of Rome, where was the center of the post classical West?
a. in the former Roman colonies of Spain and Portugal
b. in Italy, particularly Rome.
c. in France, England, Germany, and the Low Countries.
d. Greece and Balkan region
Manorialism was the system that
a. described economic and political relationships between landlords and their peasant laborers.
b. secular authorities used to name bishops.
c. defined relationships between members of the military elite.
d. united the traditions of classical rationalism with medieval Christianity.
Which of the following statements concerning the early concerning the early medieval manorial system is NOT true?
a. It was technologically sophisticated.
b. It had originated in the Roman Empire.
c. It's obligations bore heavily on the serfs
d. Agricultural productivity was low.
What Frankish monarch was able to establish a substantial empire after 800?
b. Charles Martel
c. Pepin II
Where was the greatest concentration of urbanization after the 10th century?
a. Italy and Low Countries
b. England and France
c. France and Holy Roman Empire
d. England and Scandinavia
Which of the following was a result of the Crusades?
a. Western knights carved out a kingdom in the Holy Land that lasted until the 15th century.
b. The Fourth Crusade aided in the defense of Constantinople and preserved the integrity of teh Byzantine Empire.
c. The Crusades demonstrated a new Western superiority in the wider world.
d. The Crusades helped to open the West to new cultural and economic influences from the East.
a. grants of land given to lesser members of the military elite in return for military service.
b. agricultural laborers in the manorial system
c. members of the military elite who received land in return for service
d. greater lords within the military elite who commanded military bands.
How did the intellectual endeavors of medieval scholars differ before and after 1000?
a. Before 1000, scholars were limited to copying ancient texts, but after 1000 a greater synthesis of rationalism and theology was achieved.
b. After 1000, they abandoned classical rationalism completely in favor of more mystical goals.
c. Prior to 1000, more innovative classical techniques were utilized, but after 1000 the growing authority of the Church limited the use of classical authors.
d. After 1000, classical rationalism eliminated more mystical approaches to Christian theology.
Which of the following was NOT a result of the Hundred Years' War?
a. Kings reduced their reliance on feudal forces in favor of paid armies
b. an English victory
c. Foot soldiers began to achieve parity or even an advantage over mounted knights.
d. Devastation and antifeudal innovations.