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AP Human Geography: Services (Ch 12)
Transcript of AP Human Geography: Services (Ch 12)
Key Issue 1: Where Did Services Originate?
Key Issue 2: Where Are Contemporary Services Located?
Key Issue 3: Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?
Key Issue 4: Why Do Business Services Cluster in Large Settlements?
Three Types of Services
In Early Rural Settlements
In Early Urban Settlements
In Rural Settlements
In Urban Settlements
Central Place Theory
Heirarchy of Services and Settlements
Hierarchy of Business Services
Business Services in LDC's (peripheral regions)
Economic Base of Settlements
Earliest Consumer Services
Household Servics as wome dominated "Home and Hearth"
Manufacturing of tools, cloths, containers, fuel, weapons, etc.
schools, libraries, theatres, museums,
Earliest Public Services
Soldiers for defense
Walls for Protection
Earliest Business Services
Settlements: regulated terms of transactions, set fair prices, kept accurage records, created and maintained a currency system.
Services in Ancient Cities (Fertile Crescent, Egypt, China, Indus Valley)
Ur (Mesopotamia) -
Earliest example of urban planning
Greek City States (Knossos, Mycenae, Troy, Athens, Alexandrea)
Developement Western Civilization (Culture, Philosophy, etc)
Earliest true "urban" centers.
Cities within the empire were modeled in Rome's image
Centers of administration, military, and other public and consumer services for the province.
Romans were masters of administration (coins, laws, taxes, defense, etc) and public works projects (roads, aqueducts, etc.)
When Rome fell, urban "civilized" life declined sharply (Dark Ages)
Services in Medieval Cities
Expanding Trade Networks propted urban revival after 1000A.D. in Europe.
Revived and espanded road, river, and sea transportation networks. (Hanseatic League, N. Italy)
Walled Cities, Dense Urban Architecture, Central Public Square.
Today Global Pop is Equally Divided
2008 may have been a watershed
Clustered Rural Settlement
Hamlet or Village
Circular Pattern vs. Linear Pattern
Match whole group settlement patterns and group land grants
Useful for defense (Indians) and the reinforcing of common cultural/religious values
Pop Growth = "new" settlements
Dispersed Rural Settlements
Common in Mid Atlantic, Midwest, and Southern American Colonies
individual arrival and settlement
private purchases of land
Machinery makes clustered patterns inefficient
New England changes in mid 1700's.
Population growth used up all avaliable land from which to establish new villages
Weakened cultural bonds
Louis Wirth (1930')
Urban dweller follows a different way of life
Size (Many daily interactions "anonymous" or "contractual")
Population Density (Job Specialization/Professions & Hightened Competitiveness)
More variety of people and always a group of like minded individuals out there
Less Social Pressure to Conform ? More freedome to experiment with professions, entertainment, or personal beliefs
Irony = with more freedom/independence in a city also comes an increases sense of isolation. A greater feeling that others are indifferent or reserved
Wirth's distinctions may hold true for LDCs today but for MDCs almost everyone is "urban" minded.
large % of people in cities reflects a country's level of developement.
MDCs 3/4th urban vs LDCs 2/5th urban - Latin America is the exception
Do MDCs have room for further urbanization?
Having largest world cities does not make a nation an MDC, may just reflect total population
8 of 10 of the largest cities in the world are in LDCs - Buenos Aires, Delhi, Dhaka, Calcutta, Mexico City, Mumbai, Sao Paulo, and Shanghai. New York and Tokyo are in the MDCs.
How to identify the most profitable location for a consumer service
Central Place (node) with Market Area (hinterland) surrounding it.
Assumes people prefer the nearest location for services
In the continental 48 there are 171 functional regions based on commuting hubs = "Daily urban system"
Market Area must consider...
Range (max distance people are willing to travel) - perhaps best reflect in time traveled by car - may not be a circle
Threshold (minimum demand required to be profitable)
consider relevant demographic info of customers
Age, Gender, Wealth, Family Structure (single, married, children)
1) Compute the range
2) Compute the threshold
3) Draw the Market Area
irregular shaped for variation in travel time
account for competitors = larger range or threshold may be required
Optimal Location = minimizes distance for the largest number of people
Linear Settlment = "gravity model" = best location subject to size and distance
Nonlinear Settlement = apply "gravity model" to multiple avaliable locations
Nesting Pattern =
Uses central place theory to map out hexagonal market areas of various sizes.
this pattern often reflect real world distribution
Rank-Size Distribution of Settlements
Ranking cities from largest to smallest in terms of population produces a regular pattern.
a country's nth-largest settlement is 1/nth the population of the largest settlement.
Plot out on line-graph. USA and a handful of others follows this rule.
Absence of Rank-Size distribution may mean, especially in an LDC, that the country lacks the wealth and/or ability to provide goods and services to everyone.
Primate City Rule
Country's largest city has more than twice as many people as the next largest.
Primate Cities include (Copehagen, London, Bucharest)
Dominant in LDC's - purchasing power too low to support full time market
In MDC's - urban farmers markets
1/3 of teachers
2/3 of teachers
Tertiary/Service Sector = 85% of jobs in USA
Consumer Services = 44%
Business Services = 24%
Public Services = 17%
Education = 10%
Centers of finance, business, communication, law, and entertainment/tourism.
Growing in importance, not shrinking
Dominant World Cities
New York, London, Tokyo
largest cities in MDC regions
center of the most important stock markets
centers of finance and business
Major World Cities
Chicago, LA, Washington, Brussels, Frankfurt, Paris, Sao Paulo, and Singapore
Secondary World Cities
Command and Control Centers
regional - subregional
Specialized Producer-Service Centers
R&D or Industrial Specialization
Rochester (Office Equipment)
San Jose (Semiconductors)
Centers of Gov and Education
Albany, Madison, Raleigh-Durham
Resort or Retirement Centers (Sunbelt)
Manufacturing Centers (Rustbelt)
Military Centers (South and West)
Offshore Financial Services
Typically Islands and Microstates
Tax havens and/or shelters
Caymans, U.S. Virgin Islands, Bahamas, Turks & Caicos, Seychelles, Manaco, Liechtenstein, Panama, Bahrain, Liberia.
Back-office Functions = "Business Process Outsourcing"
Routine clerical activities
Data Entry, Insurance and Payment Processing, Billing, Technical Inquiry
No longer in the same facility as management
Improved Tech (Telecommunications)
Many LDCs offer
English speakers exposed to English/American cultural norms and preferences
Basic Industries = outside city consumption - key to expanding a cities economy
Non-Basic Industries = domestic consumption (consumer products)
Specialization of Cities
1) Durable Manufacturing
2) Nondurable Manufacturing
3) Services (attractive to "rust belt" cities)
4) Primary Sector (Mining)
Distribution of Talent
US competitive advantage? - willingness to relocate for work
Primary pull factor to a city = work or culture
High Cultural Diversity tends toward Higher Talent
"Talented" are the most innovative and most likely to begin new businesses
“City Centered” (TIME, Oct 21, 2010 ) by Bruce Katz. - Play Video Clip