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Pollution

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by

Ethan Gaubert

on 27 April 2017

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Transcript of Pollution

Light Pollution
Dark Skies
Provo/Orem, Utah metropolitan area
Light Pollution is defined as the intrusion of artificial light and the alteration of natural light levels in the outdoor environment

Many adverse effects:
Energy Waste
Negative health effects for humans
Changes in animal behaviors
Disruption in species interactions

Pollution
Air Pollution
Estuary Pollution
Pollution in the Arctic Marine Ecosystem
Landfill Pollution
Oceanic Plastic Pollution
Air pollution is a prevalent issue in large cities across the world. It is the dispersal of particulates, biological molecules or other harmful materials into theEarth's atmosphere.
Chemical Components
Most common:
Ozone
Carbon monoxide
Sulfur dioxide
Caused by:
Combustion of gasoline
Incineration of garbage
Burning of Fossil fuels
Case Study: China
As Chinese cities undergo rapid urbanization, the amount air pollution increases significantly. Pollution in major cities such as Shanghai and Beijing becomes so dense, blocking the sunlight and preventing plant important processes such as photosynthesis.
Air pollution gives rise to other forms of pollution
In Damascus, Syria, air pollution gives rise another form of pollution known as "soil pollution". In this case, Ozone, from the combustion of motor vehicle and industrial buildings are released into the air and sink into the soil. This affects staple crops and livestock.
An
estuary
is where freshwater rivers and streams meet the ocean
Pollution
originates from many sources:
Industrial
Municipal
Agricultural
Urban
Types of Pollutants
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
PCBs
PCDD/Fs
Pesticides
DDT
Kepone
Heavy metals
Mercury
Copper
Lead
Tributyltin (TBT)
Biological Impacts of Pollutants
Estuary Conservation
Importance of estuaries:
Coastal buffers
Water filters
Nursery habitats
Biodiversity hotspots
Future research suggestions:
Avian impacts of estuary
pollution
Improved sediment
toxicology models
Infaunal organisms as
biomarkers
Atmospheric Pollution
Toxic substances released from automobile exhaust, industrial manufacturing and other processes enter aquatic environment through the atmosphere



Effects of Atmospheric Pollution
Introduces foreign airborne contaminants:
Organic compounds

Health hazards:
- Liver toxicity
- Neurotoxicity
- Immune suppression
- Hormone alteration

Acids
- Contribute to acidification of bodies of water
- High doses are lethal
- Susceptibility to pathogens
- Reproduction rate reduction
- Reduced ability to produce calcium carbonate shell
tests
Sewage Pollution
Most of the Arctic is not sewered

Oil Pollution
Effects of Oil Pollution

Acute mortality
Persistence of sub-lethal does of oil

Overall effect of spills: change in composition of marine fish community, reducing forage fish biomass, affecting higher vertebrates populations

Plastic Pollution
Transport of foreign species

Suffocation or starvation due to entanglement or ingestion

Ghost fishing

Atmospheric pollution
Sewage pollution
Oil pollution
Plastic pollution

The Arctic holds the largest gas and oil reserves.

Threats include:
- Blow outs
- Pipe line leaks
- Shipping accidents

What are landfills?
Landfills are a mass of land that is reserved for waste disposal.
Usually consists of a gravel pit and a plastic liner
Landfills are the main area for disposal by humans.
All plastic pollution is discarded by human.
About 80 % of debris in the ocean is plastic, and the amounts of it is only increasing. (Gorman 1993)
Plastics: Bottles, bags, plastic packing materials, net webbing, and many more.
Marine Species.
Effects of Landfills
Changes in Animal Behavior/Interactions
Groundwater and Soil
Main cause of contamination due to leachates
Leachate is the liquid waste that comes from the waste within the landfill
Greenhouse gases
Landfills are a major source of greenhouse gases.
Artificial Light on Predation:
- Changes in vertical migration leads to higher predation in Zooplankton

- Insect attraction to light sources leads to higher predation by birds/bats.

On Migration:
- Baby Sea Turtles can be drawn by light sources away from the ocean.

- Tall buildings with light confuse and disorient migrating birds
Case Study
Casablanca landfill in Morocco
Contamination exceed standard levels for potable and irrigation water
Landfills with no liner have more of an immediate impact on their surrounding environment
Threat to Biodiversity
Light pollution is causing changes in:

Animal migration

Animal Mating

Species Interactions

Nightime environment


Future Directions
Changing the Spectrum of Lighting
Changing the Intensity of Lighting
Future Direction
Maintaing Naturally Unlit Areas
Limit waste that goes into the landfills
Recycling
Composting
Change Duration of Lighting
Reduce Trespass of Lighting
The Right Whale
Near to extinction
Due to their enormous size lead them to starvation.
Population tend to grow slowly due to the amount of time it takes them to reproduce.
Female whales don't become sexually mature till about 10 years & pregnancy takes a year long.
Environmental Impacts
Entanglement
Ingestion
Transport of Invasive species
Future Directions
Be responsible
Government Regulations
Industry Restrictions
Corporate Rules
Endocrine disruptors
PCBs
DDT
TBT
Carcinogens
PCDD/Fs
Info-disruptors
Heavy metals
Reduced fitness
Kepone
Ecological Impacts
Plant growth compromised
Ozone causes decreased life span
Growth and sustainability affected
Susceptibility to plant death and disease
Case study: China
Urbanization = pollution
Binding of ozone to greenhouse
Increase in ambient ozone; winter wheat (
triticum aestiym
)
Case Study: Syria
Heavy metal and ozone uptake in the soil
Eggplant (
Solanum melongena
)
Trophic cascade
Future Directions
Weather station funding
Public awareness
Research in other areas
Sewage pollution causes eutrophication (algae bloom)
Heavy metal contamination
Viral and bacterial contamination
Bellwork:

- Take out a sheet of paper
- Top half label design
- Bottom half label conclusion
Definition:

- The presence in or introduction into the ENVIRONMENT of a substance or thing that has a harmful or poisonous effect.
Getting Started:
What ways can wastewater create issues in baton rouge?
What ways can it be handled in a safe and controlled way?
Are there any current solutions that can be improved?
Lab:

Use the straws, tape, craft sticks, paper towel yarn to construct an apparatus to protect a fragile egg from cracking when falling

You have 30 minutes to build

Conclusion:
- Was your design successful at 1 foot drop?
- Was your design successful at 3 foot drop?
- Was your design successful at 6 foot drop?
- How can your design be improved?
Full transcript