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Physical Development in Early Childhood

Chapter 8 in "Infants, Children, and Adolescents" for Human Life and Development.
by

Shaya Wolf

on 8 October 2012

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Transcript of Physical Development in Early Childhood

Chapter 8 Mikie, Hailey, Patrick & Shaya Body Growth -Skeletal Growth
-Brain Development Influences on Physical Growth and Health -Heredity and Hormones
-Emotional Well-Being
-Sleep Habits and Problems
-Nutrition
-Infectious Disease
-Childhood Injuries Motor Development -Gross-Motor Development
-Fine-Motor Development
-Individual Differences in Motor Skills
-Enhancing Early Childhood Motor Development Physical Development in Early Childhood Early childhood is a time for changes in body size, proportions,
skeletal maturity, and brain development. Body Growth Between the ages of 2 and 6
Lose Baby Teeth - Health Important
Girls Ahead of Boys
Smoke and unhealthy diets contribute to tooth decay Skeletal Growth Brain Development Handedness Brain Development Other Advances in Brain Development Brain Development Heredity, emotional well-being, restful sleep, and nutrition all effect physical growth and health. Unintentional injuries are common in early childhood but can be prevented. Influences on Physical Growth and Health Pituitary Gland - Located at the base of the brain and releases two growth hormones.
The growth hormones are GH (Growth Hormone) and TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)
2% of children suffer from growth deficiency
Both hormones are available synthetically. Heredity and Hormones High stress affects growth and health and causes respiratory and intestinal illnesses.
Psychosocial Dwarfism - a growth disorder causes by increased stress at home. Emotional Well-Being Sleep is essential in growth due to GH being released while children sleep.
Total sleep needed declines from 2-4 from 12 hours to 10.
Nap needs vary greatly between children.
Bedtime routines help getting kids to bed in a more smooth matter.
Difficulty sleeping is common.
Sleep disorders range from not being able to fall asleep, to not sleeping all the way through the night, to having problems waking up. Sleep Habits & Problems Appetites become smaller as growth begins to slow
High quality diets are essential in avoiding disease in adulthood.
Children tend to imitate adults.
Repeat exposure to foods can cause a child to like that food more.
Too many restrictions or bargaining can cause children to have worse diets when given freedom of their consumption.
Children can suffer from improper diets. Nutrition Risk of disease increases when accompanied by poor diets.
One common example: Measles Infectious Disease Infectious Disease and Malnutrition Infectious Disease Immunization Infectious Disease Unintentional injuries lead to more childhood deaths than anything else.
Auto and traffic, drowning, and burns are the most common childhood injuries. Childhood Injuries Factors Related to Childhood Injuries Childhood Injuries Preventing Childhood Injuries Childhood Injuries Disease contributes to malnutrition.
Diarrhea results in nearly 2 million childhood deaths each year.
Common in slums and shanty towns.
Most deaths can be prevented with oral rehydration therapy which is relatively free.
Supplements can also aid in saving lives. 20% of US children do not receive a full schedule of vaccines.
The US lags behind other states in immunization.
1994 - All uninsured children were given free immunization.
Attending childcare puts children at a higher risk of disease due to close contact with other kids who may or may not be sick. Accidents CAN be prevented.
Children with bigger temperaments are more at risk for injury.
Injury is also seen more so in impoverished, single-parented, and/or low education homes.
Childhood injury increases with population growth, declining safety measures, poverty, less good child care, and more teenagers giving birth. Laws help, but we sometimes put comfort in front of safety.
Supervision, controlling temperaments, eliminating the largest safety concerns, buckling up, choosing safe playgrounds, practicing caution around water, and being careful around animals all prevent injury. From 2-6 the brain increases from 70-90% of adult weight
Increased Synapse
Plasticity
Synaptic Pruning
The hemispheres develop at different rates. Show signs during the 10th prenatal week and at 6 months old
Dominant Cerebral Hemisphere - an individual's greater capacity on one side of the brain to carry out motor activities.
Not Genetic/Weak Tendency towards Genetics
Left handed children have no developmental problems Cerebellum - a structure at the rear base of the brain that aids in balance and body control
Reticular Formation - a structure in the brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness.
Hippocampus- inner brain structure that aids memory and depth perception.
Amygdala- processes emotions
Corpus Callosum - fibers connecting hemispheres During early childhood, there are major milestones of gross- and fine- motor development as well as individual differences in each child's motor skills. Motor Development Become streamlined, less top-heavy, grow steadier on their feet, and can better control their body.
Changes in catching skills
Gross Motor skills include walking, climbing stairs, running, galloping, riding a tricycle, and catching a ball. Gross-Motor Development Children begin to take care of themselves
Children begin to work with their hands. Fine-Motor Development Self-Help Skills Fine-Motor Development Age 2-3 - can dress in simple items of clothes, can work large zippers, and can use a spoon.
Ages 3-4 - Can work large buttons, serve themselves food, use scissors, and can draw vertical lines and circles.
Ages 4-5 - Uses fork, cuts with scissors while following a line, and can copy triangles, crosses, and some letters.
Ages 5-6 - Can use knife, ties shoes, draws a person in 6 parts, and copies numbers as well as simple words. Drawing Fine-Motor Development Scribbles
First Representable forms
Realistic drawings
Perception changes as they get older. Cultural Variations in Development of Drawing Fine-Motor Development Children look for praise from parents as well as peers.
Cultures who focus more on art produce better artists and vice versa.
Non-schooled children do not draw as well. Early Printing Fine-Motor Development Pencil grip changes as children get older.
At first, children do not perceive a difference in writing and drawing.
First writing attempts involve writing their name or letters of their name.
Children learn to grip a pencil from 3-5 years old.
Printing left to right occurs with practice and getting older. Differences in children occur during childhood including muscular vs stocky and tall vs short.
Gender differences emerge by age 5.
Girls are better at flexibility, foot movement, and balance.
Boys are better at throwing, catching, and coordination. Individual Differences in Motor Skills Getting a child involved early is a great social activity, but does not show any impact on motor development.
Stimulating play can help master motor skills.
Playgrounds should offer diverse and useful equipment.
Daily routines such as eating and dressing help refine motor skills.
The environment created by adults can enhance or harm a child's motor development. Enhancing Early Childhood Motor Development
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