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Protestantism in America

An overview of the development of the major protestant denominations with a concentration on Presbyterianism.

Carol Ferguson

on 30 June 2013

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Transcript of Protestantism in America

The Society of Friends, also called Quakers, arose in mid-17th-century England as a more personal, spiritual religion than Anglicanism or Puritanism.
Quakers soon came to America for religious freedom. The most famous Quaker colony was Pennsylvania, charted under the leadership of William Penn to see how a state could be governed consistently with Friends’ principles, especially pacifism and religious toleration.
Quakers were quite active in the abolitionist and suffragette movements, and continue to work to alleviate suffering and persecution. They remain a small but very productive movement.

Society of Friends
Episcopal Church (USA)
Salvation Army
Holiness Churches
Charismatic & Nondenominational Churches
Lutheranism developed out of the work of the 16th century German theologian Martin Luther, and arrived in North America in the middle of the 17th century.
The majority of Lutheran churches are now part of the Lutheran Church in America (LCA), with the Missouri and Wisconsin synods remaining separate.
At the beginning of the 21st century, there were more
than 65 million Lutherans worldwide, making
Lutheranism the second largest Protestant denomination.

The Catholic Church developed out of the early Christian church. Despite the schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches in 1054, Catholicism remained the dominant form of Christianity in Europe until the Protestant Reformation.
(4th c.)
(Established 1878)
19th c.
16th c.
(Movement begins 1960s)
Protestantism In America
The Anglican Church was established in 1534 when King Henry VIII declared himself, rather than the Pope, head of the Church in England.
The Church of England developed a via media—a middle way—between Catholicism
and Lutheranism.
The first Anglican service in North America was conducted in California in 1579 during Sir Francis Drake's voyage around the globe.
The first baptisms were held at Roanoke Colony.
The first Anglican church was built in 1607 with the founding of Jamestown, Virginia.
By 1700 there were more than 100 Anglican parishes.
The Revolutionary War resulted in the formation of the Episcopalian Church.
Anglicanism in America
St. Lukes near Smithfeld, VA, the oldest surviving Anglican church in North America
Today, Anglicanism is the third largest Christian denomination in the world.
As of 2011, the number of Anglicans in the world was well over 85 million, mainly a result of Britain’s extensive colonization in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Queen Elizabeth II is now the head of the Church of England.
Unitarian Universalists
Congregationalism began as a dissident movement breaking with the Church of England. Congregationalists preferred the Calvinist or even Puritan models of religion.
The "founder" of Congregationalism, Robert Browne, established his own independent church in 1582. Others followed suit, and the new separatist group became known as the Brownists.

In 1620, about 30 Brownists sailed on the Mayflower to America. From these first "pilgrim fathers," Congregationalism spread through the American colonies. Its history is often intertwined with that of the
Presbyterian church.
(Established 1825)
United Church of Christ
(Established 1957)
The Episcopal Church was the name given to Anglican churches that broke with the Church of England during the Revolutionary War.

The Episcopal Church was formally separated from the Church of England in 1789 so that clergy would not be required to accept the supremacy of the British monarch.
More than a quarter of all presidents of the United States have been Episcopalians.
As of 2010, the Episcopal Church reports 2,125,012 baptized members, mostly in the U.S.
As of 2000, the District of Columbia, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Virginia had the highest percentage of Episcopalians.
The Episcopal Church also leads in
education- and income-level of members.

John Wesley was an Anglican priest. As a student at Oxford, he led a group known as Methodists because of their “methodical” devotion and study.

In 1738, after being convicted of their genuine lack of faith by a failed ministry in the colony of Georgia, both John and his brother Charles had conversion experiences. John Wesley wrote he “felt” his “heart strangely warmed... I felt I did trust in Christ, Christ alone, for salvation; and an assurance was given me that He had taken away my sins, even mine, and saved me from the law of sin and death.”

John Wesley (1703-1791)
The Methodist Revival began with George Whitefield and John Wesley preaching in the slums of Bristol. Under Whitefield and the Wesley brothers, the movement grew rapidly, and officially broke with the Church of England in 1795.
The Wesleyan Methodist Church grew rapidly throughout the United Kingdom, numbering 450,000 members by the end of the 19th century. A series of schisms and reintegrations produced two major groups: the Methodist Church and the United Methodist Church.

Origins of the Methodist Church
Methodism was introduced into America by Irish immigrants. Wesley also sent preachers and presbyters to America.

Between the Revolutionary and Civil Wars,
the church grew remarkably, led by the circuit
riders who preached to the people on the
frontier in simple terms.

In 1845, the slavery issue split the Methodist Church into two bodies: the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. They reunited in 1939 to form the Methodist Church, which merged with the Evangelical United Brethren Church in 1968 to form the United Methodist Church.

Methodism in America
In 2008, total United Methodist Church membership was estimated at 11.4 million, with about 7.9 million in the U.S. and 3.5 million overseas.

Membership is concentrated primarily in the Midwest and in the South. Texas has the largest number of members, with about 1 million.
United Methodist Church
Pentecostalism is a 20th century charismatic religious movement characterized by "baptism with the Holy Spirit" and speaking in tongues.

There are more than 10 million Pentecostals in the United States, including 5.5 million members of the Church of God in Christ and 2.5 million members of the Assemblies of God.

(Established late 17th century)
Anabaptism was a fringe movement of the Protestant Reformation that insisted upon adult baptism and taught revolutionary ideals about the separation of church and state. Anabaptists were
persecuted almost to the
point of extinction.
A small group of Anabaptists survived under the leadership of Menno Simons to become the Mennonites. In 1663, the Mennonites began to leave Europe for America to avoid religious persecution and preserve their faith.
They are known for pacifism, and some branches of Mennonites, though not all, retain the tradition of “simple living” even today.
There are about 1.7 million Mennonites worldwide as of 2012.
Baptists can be traced back to 17th century Puritans who broke with other protestant groups over the necessity of believers’ baptism.
There were few Baptist churches in the colonies, but they played a major role in the struggle for religious freedom.
The growth of the Baptist church was largely a product of the Great Awakening.
During the 19th century, Baptist theology shifted from Calvinism to Evangelicalism.

The denomination split in 1845 over the issue of slavery, producing the Southern Baptist Convention, which is now the largest Protestant body in the United States, with churches in every part of the country and a membership of over 16 million. In 2002, there were over 100 million Baptists
worldwide and over
33 million in North

Adventists trace their origin to the United States in the mid-19th century. They emphasize the belief that the Second Coming of Christ is close at hand.
Most Adventist groups
remain relatively small.
Seventh-Day Adventists
Jehovah's Witnesses
(Established 1872)
(Established 1863)
1607: Presbyterians At Jamestown
1620–1640: Puritan Migration
1640: First Congregation Organized
1647: Westminster Confession Published
1683: Francis Makemie Arrives In The Colonies
1706: First Presbytery Organized
1741: Old-Side New-Side Schism Begins
1746: The Log College
1755: Presbyterianism Expands In Virginia
1776: Presbyterian Signs The Declaration Of Independence
Presbyterianism traces its theology back to the 16th century French theologian John Calvin, and its polity to the Scottish preacher John Knox.

English Presbyterianism had its beginnings in 1558, when Calvinists began to campaign for reform of the Anglican church.

Presbyterians in The Colonies
1869: Reunion Of Old And New Schools
1889: First Woman Minister Ordained By The Cumberland Presbyterian Church
1910: Beginning Of The Fundamentalist Movement
1930: Ordination Of Women Elders
1936: Orthodox Presbyterian Church
1954: PCUS Endorses Desegregation
1956: Margaret Towner Ordained Minister
1958: Formation Of The United Presbyterian Church In The U.S.A.
1973: Presbyterian Church In America Established
1983: Reunion!!!
1787: Second Great Awakening
1789: First General Assembly
1801: Protestant Revival
1831: Salem Presbyterian Church Founded!
1837: Old School/New School Schism
1842: Ordination Of Henry Highland Garnet
1858: Formation Of The UPCNA
1861: Presbyterian Church In The Confederate States Of America
1865: Presbyterian Church In The United States Officially Organizes
From Revolution to Civil War
The PC(USA) is now the largest Presbyterian denomination in America. In 2012 the PC(USA) had almost two million (1,849,496) members in over 10,000 congregations.
Reformed and Always Reforming
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