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Rome Presentation

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Natalie Hanson

on 30 April 2014

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Transcript of Rome Presentation

Concrete
Invented in 87 B.C.
used slaked lime and volcanic ash to create a sticky paste. Combined with volcanic rocks, this ancient cement formed a concrete that endured chemical decay.
Set quickly even when submerged in seawater, enabling the construction of elaborate baths, piers and harbors.

Newspapers
invented in 131 B.C.
official texts detailed military, legal and civil issues, games, births and deaths. Known as Acta Diurna, or “daily acts,”
newspapers were written on metal or stone and then posted in heavily trafficked areas.
Bound Books
invented in the first century
created the codex
were made of bound wax tablets, but later replaced by animal skin.
Welfare
invented in 122 B.C.
law that ordered Rome’s government to supply its citizens with allotments of cheaply priced grain.
Trajan, who implemented a program known as “alimenta” to help feed, clothe and educate orphans and poor children.
Other items including corn, oil, wine, bread and pork were added to the list of price-controlled goods, which were collected with tokens called “tesserae.”
The Julian Calendar
based off of greek models
Julius Caesar instituted the Julian system to align the calendar with the solar year.
Caesar lengthened the number of days in a year from 355 to the now-familiar 365 and eventually included the 12 months as we know them today.
The Julian calendar was almost perfect, but it miscalculated the solar year by 11 minutes. These few minutes ultimately threw the calendar off by several days.
The 12 Tables & Corpis Juris Civilis
the Twelve Tables, a code that formed an essential part of the constitution during the Republican era.
First adopted around 450 B.C.
the Twelve Tables detailed laws regarding property, religion and divorce and listed punishments for everything from theft to black magic.
the Corpus Juris Civilis was an attempt to synthesize Rome’s history of law into one document.
Established between 529 and 535 A.D.
included modern legal concepts such as the notion that the accused is innocent until proven guilty.
After the fall of the Roman empire, it became the basis for many of the world’s legal systems.

Battlefield Surgery
pioneered the use of the cesarean section
Trained medics saved many lives by using medical innovations like tourniquets and arterial surgical clamps to curb blood loss.
Field doctors performed physicals and helped stop the spread of disease with sanitation in military camps.
They were even known to disinfect instruments, pioneering a form of antiseptic surgery that was not fully embraced until the 19th century.
Roman military medicine was so advanced at treating wounds that soldiers lived longer than the citizens despite facing combat.
Roman Society
Politics
Politics

Greek
Influence
Religion
Public
Improvements
Public Improvements
Roman
Advances
Architecture
Geography
Geography
Agriculture
Agriculture
The Fall
of
Rome
Military spent too much
Tax Increase
Rise in the prices of goods and services
High Unemployment
Job shift from agriculture to other “skilled” jobs
Poor Harvest - people starved
Gap grew between rich and poor and got worse as time went on.
German Invasions - The Visogoths came who were friendly, but not welcomed by the Romans. Then the Huns invaded. They roamed down from the East and North into far reaching frontier areas of North Europe. They established colonies at will, and butchered and killed anyone who differed from their ideals (the Romans).
476 AD the last Roman emperor (Romulus Agustulus) is deposed by a Germanic general.

The male head of the household had special privileges and was the voice of the family.
Girls were arranged to marry at the age of 14; and a man could divorce a woman if she didn't give him a son.
The women were expected to cook, clean, and raise the children.

-The alphabet, weights, measures, coinage, many gods and building temples were used from the Greeks.
-The Romans gained Greek influences in trade, banking, administration, art, literature, philosophy and earth science.
Greek ties to Rome
Roman Society & Family Life

Social class in ancient Rome were hierarchical, but there were multiple and overlapping social classes. The status of freeborn Romans during the Republic was established by:
ancestry
census rank (based on wealth and political privilege)
attainment of honors
citizenship


Social Classes
We have some timelines for you,
but to make Government , we
made a video...

fun
Why Rome Fell:
Plebeians
Slaves
Patritians
There was much commerce between the provinces of the empire, and all regions of the empire were largely economically interdependent. Some provinces specialized in the production of grain, others in wine and others in olive oil, depending on the soil type. Volcanic soil in Campania made it well-suited for wine production. In addition to knowledge of different soil categories, the Romans also took interest in what type of manure was best for the soil. The best was poultry manure, and cow manure one of the worst. Sheep and goat manure were also good. Donkey manure was best for immediate use, while horse manure wasn't good for grain crops.
Built lots of roads for easier trade throughout the empire
Establishment of the Polis – central political unit in Rome
Temples—These buildings, built for the Gods and Goddess, copied Greek style of architecture.
Forums - Public areas where all political action, classes, and debates of the took place.
Theaters- People would watch plays for entertainment
Rome
By: Alex Hanson
Lisa Evans
& Natalie Hanson
Madison Armstrong
Marissa Munoz
Basilicas
Bridges
Roman bridges were the first large and lasting bridges built. Roman bridges were built with stone and had the arch as the basic structure. Most utilized concrete as well, which the Romans were the first to use for bridges.
Roman engineers built stone arch or stone pillar bridges over all major rivers of their Imperium except for the Euphrates and the Nile.
Early Roman arch bridges, influenced by the ancient notion of the ideal form of the circle, often describe a full circle, with the stone arch continuing underground. Later, Roman masonry bridges rested mostly on semi-circular arches.

Aqueducts, mostly underground, move water through gravity alone, being constructed along a slight downward gradient within conduits of stone, brick or concrete. Most also include sedimentation tanks, sluices, and distribution tanks to regulate the supply at need.
The Romans constructed numerous aqueducts to bring water form distant sources into their cities and towns, supplying public baths, laltrines, fountains, and private households.
Hundreds of similar aqueducts were built throughout the Roman Empire. ALthogh the systems were not as extensive as those supplying Rome itself and many of them have collapsed or been destroyed, a number of intact portions remain.
Aqueducts
Temples
Triumphal Arches
Triumphal arches are one of the most influential and distinctive types of architecture associated with ancient Rome. Believed to have been invented by the Romans, they were used to commemorate victorious generals or significant public events such as the founding of new colonies, the constructions of a road or bridge, the death of a member of the imperial family, or the accession of a new emperor.
The survival of great Roman triumphal arches such as the Arch of Titus inspired many post-Roman states and rulers, up to the present day, to erect their own arches in emulation of the Romans. These Roman arches have been built in many cities around the world such as Paris, Saint Petersburg, and London.

Amphitheatres
Luxury arts(decorative) included fancy Roman glass in a great range of techniques, many smaller types of which were probably affordable to a good proportion of the Romans public.
Mosaic was a decorative art, though often on a very large scale, until the very end of the period, when late-4th century Christians began to use it for large religious images on walls in their new large churches; in earlier Roman art mosaic was mainly used for floors, curvedceilings, and inside and outside walls that were going ot get wet.
Sculpture

"A highly visual society"
Roman Art
Roman Architecture
Art
and
Architecture
Roman
Early Roman art was influenced by the art of Greece and that of the neighboring Etruscans, who were also influenced by their Greek trading partners.
The Romans created a different form of sculpture compared to the Greeks and Etruscans called portraiture.
Also called portrait busts, this dominant genre of Roman sculpture was considered a sign of character to not gloss over the physical imperfections, and to depict men in particular as rugged and unconcerned with vanity.

Paintings
Nothing remains of the Greek paintings imported to Rome during the 4th and 5th centuries. In sum, the range of samples is confined to only about 200 years out of about 900 years of Roman history, and of provincial and decorative paintings.
Roman paintings provided a wide variety of themes: animals, still life, scenes from everyday life, portraits, and some mythological subjects.
In the late empire, after 200 A.D., early Christian themes mixed with pagan imagery survive on catacomb walls.


Decorative Arts


Among the agents of the market-place none was more important than the basilica, which served as a meeting place for the citizens, an exchange for merchants, and a court of justice.
The Basilica of Constantine, constructed of concrete and high ceilinged vaulted brick arches in the early fourth century A.D. at the suth end of the Roman Forum, served as the architectural model for Grand Central Station in New York.

Roman amphitheatres are large, circular or oval open-air venues. They were used for events like gladiator combats, chariot races, venationes(animal slayings), and executions.
About 230 Roman amphitheatres have been found across the Roman Empire area.
The Colosseum is an elliptical amphitheatre in the center of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of concrete and stone, it i the largest amphitheatre in the world and is conidered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and engineering.
Although in the 21st century it stays partially ruined because of earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum is an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome.

Ancient Roman temples are among the most visible archaeological remains of Roman culture. Their construction and maintenance was a major part of ancient Roman religion.
The main room housed the cult image of the deity to whom the temple was dedicated, and often a small altar for incense or obations. Behind the main room was a room or rooms used by temple attendants for storage of equipment and offerings.
The Pantheon is a temple in Rome, Italy, commissioned as a temple to all the gods of ancient Rome. It is one of the best- preserved Roman buildings. It has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a Roman Catholic church.
The last part of religion is about emperors Augustus and Nero...
Here is our Roman Religion Moovly.


Augustus Caesar was not only
the first emperor, but also the
first Roman to be worshipped as a God.

- Public Holiday
- Priests killing animals
This meant...

He was wicked and mean, taxing people for his own benefit. In the 64 A.D. a terrible fire raged for days in the slum districts of Rome, killing thousands of people and leaving
thousands more homeless. Nero was thought to have started the fire as a way to get rid of Rome's slums. However, Nero blamed the Christians for starting the fire. He ordered many of these Christians to be massacred. The official
Roman dislike of Christianity was surprising, because they were usually open to adopting new religions. (Like when they copied
Greece's Gods and turned them into Roman Gods.)
Forty years after Augustus died, 16 year old Nero became emperor.

There are 3 main reasons that Christians and Romans clashed:
1.Christians (with their separate God) refused to worship
their emperors as Gods. This made them disliked by the Roman
Senate.
2. Christians were seen as enemies because they kept trying to make converts.
3. Christians refused to follow Roman rules, which as you can imagine did not help. Christianity was even considered to be
illegal and Christians were alleged to practice black magic and cannibalism.
Despite all of this, the number of Christains increased, and in 313 A.D, Emperor Constantine granted Christians freedom of religion.
Sacrifice
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