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Jim Cummins: Negotiating Identities

A model of key components

Sierra Tonn

on 24 March 2013

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Transcript of Jim Cummins: Negotiating Identities

Jim Cummins Negotiating Identities:
Education for Empowerment
in a Diverse Society Human Relationships Chapter 1:
Identity & Empowerment Voluntary Minorities v Involuntary Minorities Chapter 2: Historical Context Misconceptions Chapter 3:
Language Proficiency Chapter 4: Reading Instruction CHAPTER 5: Language Learning in Mainstream reduces exposure to English,
limiting opportunities
"shuts doors"
time on task/max. exposure Chapter 6: Bilingual Education Presented by: Sierra Tonn
EDUC 647 Role Redefinement Chapter 7:
Educational Reform The enemy is the politics of greed and exploitation willing to jeopardize the lives of children and entire societies. Chapter 10:
Reframing the Discourse
of Diversity Doublethink: holding 2 contradictory beliefs & accepting both (Orwell, 1949)
Disinformation: spreading of false info to confuse opposition Chapter 9:
Doublethink to Disinformation CH 8: Collaborative
Empowerment Empowerment Disempowerment students teachers parents schools are at the heart
of schooling Collaborative Relations of Power power is not prefixed

can be generated in interpersonal relations

created with others

ideas shaped through experiences and interactions Coercive Relations of Power dominant group has the power

goal: to maintain and legitimate division of resources and power Eradication of Native Identity "ethnic cleansing"
"cultural invasion"
"inferior" accepting validating
motivational Microinteractions Bilingual Education Debate Voluntary Involuntary immigrants
move for opportunity, freedom
primary cultural differences
less lingering school failure
non-oppositional social identity
variability in academic performance brought against will (slavery, conquest, colonization, forced labor)
rigid cultural and language boundaries
secondary cultural differences
oppositional society identity
segregated schooling
"unmeltable population" (p 36) Phase I Phase II Phase III best medium is
to be taught
in mother
tongue tolerance Lau v. Nichols 1974
"take effective measures
to overcome educational
resulting from school-home
language mismatch" Two hypotheses:

language mismatch

insufficient exposure English as official US language 1983
intellectualized xenophobia
"bilingualism shuts doors... monolingual education opens doors to the wider world" (pg. 45) Phase IV Prop 227 aims to eliminate use of bilingual children's L1
for instructional purposes
waiver required for enrollment Cognitive & Contextual
Demands Time 1. Inferences made about students' ability to think logically based on familiarity with and command of standard English Inferior Spanish -> Inadequate Bilinguals
"...don't have the scholastic aptitude to master two languages well..." Students can "cope" after being in English only a short time -> led to increase in special education classifications 2. English proficiency = conversational skill Dimensions conversational discrete
language academic
language Collier (1987): 5-7 years to reach norms
Conversational plateau: 2 yrs is the responsibility of the entire school staff Second Language Acquisition Krashen: Input Hypothesis 3 aspects: cognitive schemata (prior knowledge)
L1 background knowledge
collaborative critical inquiry necessary & sufficient condition for
target language acquisition Reading Development Phonics in Isolation vs. Whole language

Extensive reading & immersion in literate environment

Shared literacy & voluntary reading

4 key components sight words/decodable vs. phonemic and phonological
texts knowledge strongly related to reading comprehension increased student progress large amts of time for actual text reading;
teacher-directed instruction in comprehension strategies;
peer & collaborative learning;
sharing responses to reading Vocabulary High Freq. 80%
Gen. Academic 8-10%
Technical/Specialized 4-5%
Low Freq. - 4-5% "If learners have a sufficiently large
vocabulary but they are not given the opportunity to put this to use and develop skill in using it, their growth in knowledge and further vocabulary growth will not be achieved" (Nation, pg. 114). Language Use Meaning Framework:
cognitive engagement
affirmation of identity

*activate prior knowledge Visuals
Prior experience verbal/written practice
"language detectives"
word exploration files
cognate connections amplify intellectual,
aesthetic, & social identities to contribute to collaborative creation of power stimulate growth, cognitive
development & affirmation
"reporting back" write/discuss complex ideas role play, dialogue
journals, creative
writing Opponents Advocates can help make instruction comprehensible
facilitate parent participation
promote two-way literacy
additive bilingualism principle Types of Programs I: Revival/Revitalization of endangered language
II: National minority language w/long term status
III: Int'l minority languages of relatively recent immigrants to host country (US transitional programs (DUAL 90/10, 50/50)
IV: Deaf/Hard of hearing
V: Dominant group -> bilingual/biliterate separate
direct relationship b/t
exposure & achievement interdependent
"dual iceberg"
two way transfer DOES
occur pg 172 disparities in distribution of resources reflect power structure collaborative creation of power EMPOWERMENT EXCLUSIONARY/ ASSIMILATIONIST TRANSFORMATIVE/ INTERCULTURAL Subtractive
legitimation disabled
limited Prop 227; high stakes testing; grouping/ tracking; few strategies; curriculum reflects dominant group; absence of professional support in L1 additive
advocacy empowered high academic expectations; instructional innovators; role models; cognitively challenging instruction; L1 inclusion; community participation (shared literacy) Transformative Pedagogy whole language
catalytic knowledge
joint interactive construction through critical inquiry
examination of students' realities

*Assessment accounts for students ENTIRE learning environment and incorporates language and culture Elementary Preschool Secondary Foundation Center defunded in 1995 served low-income, migrant families (ages 2-6)
Montessori Method
home-language based
credentialed staff from w/in community
nutrition & health care
$19/child/day 11-hr program w/2 hot meals and 2 snacks < others Program I: Oyster Bilingual School - Washington D.C. Spanish English Dual 50/50 with bicultural focus
2 teachers, larger class size
refuses discourse of "subordination"; reflects diversity as something to be developed by all students
biliteracy expectation Program II: Dual Language - Manhattan District 3 50/50 ratio of Spanish & English
alternate days *separation is central to policy
student-centered; cooperative learning; hands-on Program III: Bilingual Bicultural Mini-School - East Harlem w/in larger school; all teachers bilingual
transitions to more English over years
technology promotes collaborative critical inquiry
projects/exhibits; encouraged to use entire
language repertoire Program I: Navajo-English Applied Literacy Program abolished GATE -> instituted 9 wk cycles of curriculum (Navajo research, computers, English Research, Performance)
increased cognitive challenge
experience as basis for acquiring language, literacy, & critical thinking
transformative pedagogy Program II: Students for Cultural & Linguistic Democracy deep powerful dialogue; personal experience; cultural truths
display of student work Program III: Int'l High School Laguardia Community College, NYC 4 yr comprehensive program while learning English
60 + countries, 50+ languages ->multilingual environment
4 keys: language; bilingualism; heterogenous, collaborative learning; and assessment supports individual growth
emphasis on career education
portfolios/exhibition/writing/community research Rosalie Porter "...impulse for preserving jobs and budgets for bilingual establishment"
a) English only immersion is better/
time on task
b) 2 way immersion entails more L1 Keith Baker a) Dual immersion program supports most bilingual programs do not use enough L1
b) structured English immersion's positive results illustrate the harm that bilingual programs do to English Christine Rossell a) success of bilingual/trilingual programs
b)bilingual programs are not better than
English immersion Charles Glenn a) advocate for bilingual programs to promote bilingualism
b) critic of ways bilingual programs are
implemented in U.S. Why care? Changing Society Coercive Relations of Powers in Action Collaborative Relations of Power in Classrooms educators have a
vested interest and have considerable power through microinteraction... Intercultural contact Global & economic interdependence bilingual/ multilingual
skills Symbolic Analysis Skills Education is one of society's most cost-effective investments (pg. 293). involves moving towards a 2 class system, essentially eliminating middle class U.S. has high concentrations of inequality -> ScapeGoats 4 contradictions 1. need bilingual people -> demonize bilingual education
2. require symbolic analysis skills -> insist on "getting back to basics" & standardized tests
3. enable more low-income young ppl to graduate to increase economic performance and decrease incarceration costs -> resist educational reforms and "warehouse" them
4. restore coherence and community to people founded on social justice -> desanitize curriculum and resist issues of social justice increase visibility of power structures to enable change microinteractions create contexts of empowerment even under unfavorable conditions THANK YOU
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