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Human Cost of Chocolate

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Nicole Siberry

on 8 May 2013

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Transcript of Human Cost of Chocolate

The Human Cost of Chocolate Child Slavery in the Ivory Coast By: Nicole Siberry 75 percent of the world's cocoa beans are grown in the Ivory Coast, where over 100,000 children are involved in the worst forms of child labor on cocoa farms throughout the Ivory Coast. These children range from 12- 16 but there have been cases where the child was as young as 6 Child labor is illegal and has been hard to determine if it has diminished in the Ivory Coast. A Typical Workday A typical workday begins at sunrise and ends in the evening. Children climb the cocoa trees and cut bean pods using machetes. Then the bean pods are packed into sacks that are carried or dragged back through the forest. They hold the bean pods in one hand and use the machete in the other to pry open the bean pod. Children are only provided with corn paste and bananas because they are cheap. Many of these child slaves have no access to clean water or bathrooms and sleep on wooden planks in small buildings. Child Labor Is Defined As... "Work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential, and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development."
- International Labour Organization Nestle In 2012 they investigated 87 cocoa farms to discover child slave labor in their cocoa supply chain

Nestle gave the Fair Labor Association the permission to conduct the study and investigation

This is the first time a multinational chocolate producer has allowed its system to be completely traced and assessed

Nestle can now work on identifying the problem areas, educating workers, and taking actions against child labor. "There is no way, that long term, a company like ours can accept a situation like this. So it's a matter of how fast, how well, and how many people have to participate in getting these sorts of problems behind us. We plan to work with the World Cocoa Foundation, work with the International Cocoa Initiative, give training on the farms, and working on an action plan with the government."
- Jose Lopez, Nestle vice president of operations Nestle The FLA recommend Nestle tell every person in its supply chain about the code of practice banning child labor and make sure it is upheld

Nestle will now be accountable for where their cocoa comes from and the kinds of changes that ensure code compliant cocoa.

To follow up with this Nestle will make KitKat chocolate bars next year from cocoa certified by fair trade

Under the program, nine more cooperatives in the Ivory Coast will be paid an amount to cover the cost of sustainable production, as well as a premium to invest in community projects Nestle's Fair Trade Initiatives Canada: Australia & New Zealand: Europe: in 2011, 10% of the cocoa purchased for our KitKat, Aero, Coffee Crisp and Smarties brands was UTZ CERTIFIED; by 2014, we want to purchase only certified cocoa for these product lines; in 2011, 100% of the cocoa purchased for KitKat was UTZ CERTIFIED; in 2012, we want to extend this percentage to 100% for our Smarties and Club brands; (Excluding Belarus, the Ukraine, Russia and the UK): 10% of purchased cocoa for our KitKatM 4-Finger was UTZ CERTIFIED in 2011; we are working to purchase 100% UTZ CERTIFIED cocoa for all our KitKat products by 2014. In the UK, KitKat 4-Finger is 100% Fairtrade certified. Poverty = Child Slaves Since West Africa is a country surrounded by poverty many begin working very young to help their families. The cocoa farmers tell these children that the pay is good so they go and work on these farms. Others are sold by relatives to traffickers or farm owners. Many of the farmers who are involved with the chocolate trade have small farms in secretive locations and in remote areas where people do not travel. Many chocolate manufacturers who buy from the farms never actually have gone their themselves to see the abuse that was happening. Plantation owners buy children between ages of 11 and 16, due to the need for cheap labor for harvesting.

Children receive little to no salary and no education

146,000 children under the age of 15 were clearing plantations using machetes and working in other dangerous conditions Human Trafficking UNICEF estimates around children work on farms across the Ivory Coast, and hundreds of thousands of them are trafficked across borders and engaged in this horrible form of child labor Lack of Education Poor Health Aly's Story Aly Diabate, who is from Mali, was eleven years old when he was lured in Mali by a slave trader to go work on an Ivorian farm. The locateur told him that not only would he receive a bicycle, but he could also help his parents with the $150 he would earn. However life on the cocoa farm of "Le Gros" (or "Big Man") was nothing like Aly had imagined. He and the other workers had to work from six in the morning to about 6:30 at night on the cocoa fields. Since Aly was only about four feet tall, the bags of cocoa beans were taller than him. To be able to carry and transport the bags, other people would have to place the bags onto his head for him. Because the bags were so heavy, he had trouble carrying them and always fell down. The farmer would beat him until he stood back up and lifted the bag again. Aly was beaten the most because the farmer accused him of never working hard enough. The little boy still has the scars left from the bike chains and cocoa tree branches that Le Gros used. He and the other slaves were not fed well either. They had to subsist on a few burnt bananas.

Yet when nightfall came, Aly's torture did not end. He and eighteen other slave workers had to stay in their one room that measured 24-by-20 feet. The boys all slept on a wooden plank. There was but one small hole just big enough to let in some air. Aly and the others had to urinate in a can, because once they went into the room, they were not allowed to leave. To ensure this, Le Gros would lock the room

Despite the horrendous conditions that he was living in, Aly was too afraid to escape. He had seen others who had attempted escapes, only to be brutally beaten after they got caught. However one day, a boy from the farm successfully escaped and reported Le Gros to the authorities. They arrested the farmer and sent the boys back home. The police made Le Gros pay Aly $180 for the eighteen months he had worked. Now Aly is back with his parents in Mali, but the scars, both physical and psychological still remain. He admitted that after he first came back from the farm, he had nightmares about the beatings every night. Aly was fortunate that the authorities were alerted about the slavery that was present at Le Gros' farm, but many other children are not as lucky and are still being subjected to the beatings and overall dehumanization on these cocoa farms. Parents put children to work in cocoa farms to reduce labor costs on the family farms

It is cheaper to pay a child for labor than a grown adult

Farmers will look for children on the road looking lost and begging for food, offering them a job in Ivory Coast as a way to make money and get “all the food they want”

This deprives children of the chance to develop and advance themselves, keeping families in poverty for many generations

The government’s failure to provide free access to education leaves many farmers unable to buy school uniforms and textbooks.

Under the current system, many farmers could not send their children to school even if they understood the importance of education Children as young as five years old are put to work in slave-like conditions

Child workers are beaten if they refuse to work or try to escape

Many children have scars from machete accidents because they break open the pods to get the seeds from the inside and often times end up nicking themselves with the machete

Sickness from pesticide exposure is very common and 1.49% of children injure themselves using machetes or expose themselves to pesticides, but only 28% of the farmers have access to local health clinics In this part of Africa where children, out of respect, will do anything to help their parents. a half-million 2 3 dozens Many men have or wives and of children, and it's common to see boys and girls as young as 6 working to make money for their families Historically the Ivorians do not believe that child labor is something that requires attention.

There is no public support or interest to stop child slavery

Child labor is seen as inevitable and a way to avoid starvation

Economic, political, and social structures are a reason child slavery is so prevalent in the Ivory Coast. Economic Factors In 1960 Cote d’ivoire of the Ivory Coast gained independence from France. Their primary objective was growth where they expanded and diversified their agricultural production. One of these being cocoa production, which has become one of their main industries and their highest paying export.

There are about 600,000 cocoa farms in the Ivory Coast and it is estimated that 90% of cocoa farms on the Ivory Coast use child labor.Since West Africa is a country surrounded by poverty many begin working very young to help their families.

The cocoa farmers tell these children that the pay is good so they go and work on these farms. Others are sold by relatives to traffickers or farm owners. Economic Factors Many of the farmers who are involved with the chocolate trade have small farms in secretive locations and in remote areas where people do not travel.

Many chocolate manufacturers who buy from the farms never actually have gone their themselves to see the abuse that was happening.

The farmers dominant the chocolate trade system because they are receiving child labor for cheap, they are benefiting from large manufacturers exporting their goods, and the solutions to the issues have been slow because the Ivory Coast is poverty stricken it is common to see young girls and boys working.

Even though since the Cocoa Protocol there have been some improvements the hard truth is chocolate from the Ivory Coast is cheap and as long as the consumer is buying the manufacturers are going to continue importing from the Ivory Coast because it is much cheaper than Fair Trade chocolate. Political Power The political structure of the Ivory Coast is similar to the government in the United States. The Ivory Coast is run by a combination of a president and a prime minister. The president is in office for five years.

There are three branches executive, legislative, and judicial. In the executive branch the president is the head and is considered the chief of the armed forces. Each official of the legislative branch represents a certain constituency of the population. And the judicial branch establishes law and order in the country.

In 2010 the Ivory Coast ran into a problem with their presidential election, The initial count named President Gbagbo as the winner while the Independent Electoral Commission claimed former Prime Minister Ouattara victor. Outtara was named the true winner of the election, Gbagbo has refused to step down. Since then many arrests and outbreaks have occurred on the Ivory Coast.

Most recently three top allies of Gbagbo have been arrested for defaming President Ouattara. Political Power The government plays a major role in the chocolate trade. They have made efforts to corner a chunk of the market but they are still considered on of the poorest.

The government blames politics and the civil ware for the problems. Ivory Coast’s minister of agriculture said:




According to Russell’s article Justice & Social Change the children forced into slave labor are exploited because they are doing hard labor for little to no pay and for terrible working and living conditions. They are also powerless and do not have a say. They are beaten if they do not cooperate or do not work fast enough. “Thirty years of political instability caused a lot of damage to our economy generally, and to the agricultural sector particularly, and more specifically to the cocoa industry “Unfortunately, these years have been lost.” Response to Conflict: Religious Groups & Leaders Introduction of legislation in US Congress to require chocolate to bear labels based on the existence of child labor in cocoa sourcing markets.

The Centre for International Crime Prevention and the United Nations created The Global Programme against Trafficking in Human Beings improves law enforcement functions, heightens awareness within law enforcement, improve protection and support for victims, and strengthen criminal justice responses.

A Unicef official described the Ivory Coast government as in denial over the problems especially with the war and the election flaw they have focused more on those problems then the child slave labor problem. Religion:
60% indigenous beliefs
25% Muslim, Sunni. (North)
12% Christian (mostly Roman Catholic) (South)
3% Harrisism, a unique Ivorian Christian religion that upholds a simple lifestyle. Response to Conflict: The Harkin-Engel Protocol Response to Conflict: The Global Programme Against Trafficking in Human Beings "Slavery is so much a part of the structure of society that it becomes invisible...There are people who have been to the Ivory Coast 50 times and say they have never seen this... But just because you haven't seen the problem doesn't mean there isn't the problem. Let's be clear about that.''
- Beth Herzfeld of Anti- Slavery International Response to Conflict: Human Rights Groups
Branched off of Islam. The belief that spiritual beings, such as a creator, ancestral spirits, and spirits associated with places and objects can influence a person's life and play a large role in religious worship and practice. Sufism Important to many indigenous religions. To the Akan (ethnic group living in the South East), the most important of these is the yam festival, which serves as a memorial service for the dead and is a ritual of purification that helps purge the group of evil influences. Kin Groups Family is linked to a larger group, their “clan,” primarily through lineages. One of the most important kin groups is the patrilineage, a group formed by tracing descent through male forebears to a male ancestor. Ceremonies & Rituals objective: to eliminate the worst forms of child labor and grow and process cocoa beans in a manner than complies with the International Labor Organization. In September of 2001 cocoa industry representatives sign agreement, developed partnership with US Senator Harkin and Representative Engel, working toward the elimination of child labor in the growing of cocoa beans and their products from the Ivory Coast. The Harkin Engel Protocol Today Harkin Engel Protocol Plan of Action 1. Public Statement of Need for and Terms of an Action Plan- Both the industry and West African nations have publicly acknowledged the problem and have taken steps under their own laws to stop the practice. Industry will reiterate its acknowledgment of the problem and in a highly public way will commit itself to this protocol.

2. Formation of Multi-Sectoral Advisory Groups- By October 1, 2001, an advisory group will be constituted with particular responsibility for the on-going investigation of labor practices in West Africa. By December 1, 2001, industry will constitute a broad consultative group with representatives of major stakeholders to advise in the remedies for the elimination of the worst forms of child labor.

3. Signed Joint Statement on Child Labor to Be Witnessed at the ILO- By December 1, 2001 a joint statement made by the major stakeholders will recognize the need to end the worst forms of child labor in connection with the growing and processing of West African cocoa beans and the need yo identify positive developmental alternatives for the children removed from the worst forms of child labor.

4. Memorandum of Cooperation- By May 1, 2002, there will be a binding memorandum of cooperation among the major stakeholders that establishes a joint action program of research, information, exchange, and action to enforce the internationally recognized and mutually agreed up standards to eliminate the worst forms of child labor.

5. Establishment of Joint Foundation- By July 1, 2002, industry will establish a joint international foundation to oversee and sustain efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The foundations purpose will include field projects and a clearinghouse on best practices to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. 2005: Congressman Engel warned back on Valentine’s Day that that if the companies fail to comply with the deadlines and commitments set out in the Protocol, legislation may be introduced: “I am calling on the chocolate industry to do the right thing and meet their commitments under the Harkin-Engel protocol to end the use of child slave labor. If they do not, legislation might be needed to end this evil practice once and for all.”

2008: An evaluation by the International Labor Rights Forum of the cocoa industry's progress on addressing the child labor problem was done and their findings can be summarized as "The original intent of the 'protocol' has not been achieved, and consumers today have no more assurance than they did eight years ago that trafficked or exploited child labor was not used in the production of their chocolate."

2011: The cocoa / chocolate industry has not satisfactorily implemented any of the six articles featured in the Harkin-Engel Protocol as of March, even after Senator Harkin and Congressman Engel offered the industry two extensions, postponing the deadline until 2010. The Hazardous Child Labor Activity Framework is made of 17 hazardous child labor standards of banned activities and conditions of work and a list of acceptable work related activities to children of a legal, working age and a general guideline for participation of children in cocoa agriculture. objectives: 1. Assessing the Problem and Stocktaking of Best Practices- The programs first phase consists of an effort to collect, analyze and disseminate reliable information on transnational organized crime involvement in international trafficking networks in different parts of the world, using whatever sources are available. The assessment reports will help to identify the problems that require urgent responses.

2. Promoting Best Practices- The main component of the program consists of the preparation, implementation and evaluation of a series of field projects implementing demonstration projects on an experimental basis. In selected countries the design of effective criminal justice measures to combat local and transnational organized crime groups involved in trafficking in human beings will be promoted with the assistance of, and in collaboration with, local, regional and national social services, international agencies and local Non-governmental Organizations.

3. Designing an International Strategy- The program will seek the assistance and collaboration of the agencies and institutions concerned as well as interested Governments as part of an interdisciplinary effort to design effective measures against trafficking in human beings.An international strategy and a final report will be developed to be presented at a world conference in 2002. The Global Programme Against Trafficking in Human Beings Plan of Action The Global Programme Against Trafficking in Human Beings Today Phase 1: Assessments of smuggling/trafficking flows- Countries to be involved in the studies will be selected taking into account the following parameters:
(a)The existence of important smuggling routes and forms of exploitation of trafficked people
(b)The cooperation of law enforcement and judiciary as well as to the extent possible, the availability of information on judicial investigations
(c)The existence of efforts to respond, including recent legislative reforms (culminating in a description of best practices)
(d)The commitment of the Government to the project implementation.
The assessments will be made based on literature and statistics, interviews, and files on judicial cases.

Phase 2: Demonstration Projects- On the basis of the assessments five or more countries will be involved in demonstration projects. They will be devoted to strengthening the capacity to monitor and combat forms of trafficking at the national and international levels. They may be carried out in a single country or may involve countries of origin as well as destination and/or transit countries.

Demonstration project may include the following:
Training of law enforcement officials - Counseling on legislative reform - Creation of national coalitions of relevant agencies
Drafting of model legislation - Extradition agreements between Member States for perpetrators of trafficking
Implementation of victim assistance and witness protection schemes and repatriation schemes
Creation of preventative policies, such as public awareness campaigns.
Establishment of frameworks for cooperation of relevant agencies across countries

Phase 3: Evaluation of the Projects- Process evaluation and output/impact evaluation will be carried out after completion of phase 2 by an independent research team, applying standardized methods. The evaluation will include a detailed description of the actual implementation of the projects and the problems encountered. To the extent possible , the outcomes and effects of the projects will also be ascertained.

Phase 4: International Strategy Against Smuggling in Migrants and Trafficking in Human Beings- The global strategy will be prepared in close consultation with international and national agencies involved in the program. Regional round tables will be promoted to fine-tune the strategy. Significant background material will be presented on the web. A final report presenting a comparative overview of assessments and demonstration projects will be prepared as well.The final report and the international strategy will be presented at a high-level global forum to be held in 2002. 2000: The governments of Mali and Cote d’Ivoire signed a Cooperation Agreement on Combating Transborder Trafficking of Children, which defines some minimum standards for taking the best interests of the child into account.

2002-2003: The principal UN agencies concerned with human rights and children have recently adopted guidelines concerning children who are trafficked. These are aimed mostly at government agencies responsible for assisting and protecting trafficked children and deciding on their fate afterwards. UNHCHR issued a set of “Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking in 2002: and UNICEF issued its Guidelines for Protection of the Rights of Children Victims of Trafficking in 2003.

2004-2005: Many countries still lack the legislative means to address the issue of trafficking comprehensively. The Government of the Republic of Korea passed two anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking laws in 2004. The State Department report also highlights the initiative of an NGO in India in establishing its own Trafficking in Persons report on the initiatives of state governments in that country. NGOs and international organizations are working on training in identification of victims, interview techniques, referrals, protection and assistance. IOM has an extensive training manual, including modules on interview techniques, assistance to victims, health care, law enforcement cooperation and return and reintegration. Possible Solutions Why Buy Fair Trade Chocolate? Non- Governmental Organization (NGO): Operate within Côte d'Ivoire to actively investigate alleged human rights violations. International Cocoa Initiative: Fair Trade USA: Cocoa farmers are often forced to sell their harvest to middlemen who rig scales or misrepresent prices. Fair Trade certification ensures that farmers receive a fair price and strictly prohibits slave and child labor. Fair trade standards prohibit the use of forced labor. Children are not allowed to work if it jeopardizes their education or health and they are not allowed to carry out dangerous tasks.

Fair trade cooperatives are inspected annually for compliance with Fair trade standards.

Fair trade addresses the root causes of child labor and widespread poverty amongst cocoa growing communities.

Fair trade guarantees a premium for farmers over and above the world price, enabling them to invest in local development projects like schools, healthcare and drinking water for their communities. Reconstruction of the Ivorian Government:
Create laws for employment, enforce the law, provide free education

Educate the World About Their Choice in Chocolate:
Increase the number of people who buy Fair Trade chocolate

Provide Alternative Lifestyles for Children in Poverty
Education, hopefully brings their families out of the cycle of being poor and uneducated.

Raise Awareness Globally These solutions would not fix the problem in a day or even a year and it would be challenging to break the cycle of poverty in the Ivory Coast, but even if every person started to buy Fair Trade the major corporations such as Hershey and Nestle would have no choice but to pay for fair trade cocoa, in turn eliminating child labor in the Ivory Coast. Works Cited 10 Campaign. "ISSUES." 10 Campaign. N.p., 2013. Web. 26 Apr. 2013.

Arlacchi, Pino. "Global Programme against Trafficking in Human Beings." Global Programme against Trafficking in Human Beings. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.

Butler, Rhett A. "Ivory Coast - ECONOMY." Ivory Coast - ECONOMY. N.p.,1999. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.

"Côte D'Ivoire and Ivorian Government: Leader in Child Labor, Abuse and Trafficking." Côte D'Ivoire and Ivorian Government: Leader in Child Labor, Abuse and Trafficking. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2013.

"Child Labour in Cocoa Growing." Child Labour in Cocoa. International Cocoa Initiative, 2010. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.

"Child Slavery and Chocolate: All Too Easy to Find." The CNN Freedom Project Ending ModernDay Slavery RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.

Chocolate Manufacturers Association. "Protocol for the Growing and Processing of Cocoa Beans." Cocoainitiative.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2013.

CNN Freedom Project. "Chocolate's Child Slaves." The CNN Freedom Project Ending ModernDay Slavery RSS. N.p., 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.

"Cote D'Ivoire." Countries and Their Cultures. Advameg, Inc., 2012. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. Crossing Borders Fair Trade. "Chocolate Slavery." Chocolate Slavery. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013.

Fair Trade: Every Purchase Matters. Dir. FairTradeCertified. YouTube. YouTube, 28 Sept. 2011. Web. 28 Apr. 2013. Works Cited Cont. Food Empowerment Project. "Slavery in the Chocolate Industry." Food Is Power. N.p., 2006. Web. 22 Apr. 2013.

Kit Kat: Give the Child Slaves a Break. Dir. Ken Symes. YouTube. YouTube, 23 Mar. 2011. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.

"Labor Is Not a Commodity." 'Labor Is Not a Commodity' N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2013.Nestle. "Nestle Home." Cocoa. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013.

Omelaniuk, Irena. "TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS." Un.org. N.p., 8 July 2005. Web. 25 Apr. 2013.

OXFAM. "Fairtrade Chocolate: A Sweet Solution to Poverty." Oxfam NZ. N.p., 2000-2013. Web. 28 Apr. 2013.

Pdcirda. "Government Structure in the Ivory Coast." Government Structure in the Ivory Coast. N.p., 2002-2011. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.

Smith, Michelle. "Chocolate's Secret Ingredient- Child Slavery." Chocolate's Secret Ingredient. Real Time, 06 Aug. 2009. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.

"Stop Chocolate Slavery - News and Information." Stop Chocolate Slavery - News and Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2013.

The Chocolate Industry - Human Trafficking in Africa. YouTube. YouTube, 05 Feb. 2011. Web. 20 Apr. 2013.

"The Harkin-Engel Protocol." Responsible Cocoa. National Confectioners Association, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013.
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