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Transcript of Family Policy
Jonathan Bradshaw & Naomi Finch
By: Ana Bodart & Guzel Ramazanova
Welfare States in International Comparison
January 22nd, 2015.
Parents are older than they were in the past and children are less likely to have siblings.
About one in five women age 40 born either in 1960 or 1965 are childless in the Austria, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. (OECD, 2014)
Childlessness appears to be related to educational attainment. About 40% of women in Switzerland who have completed tertiary education do not have children. In France 5% of women born between 1945 and 1949 with tertiary education remained childless. (OECD, 2014)
Outcomes in Family Policies
Family rates have been extremely unstable over the last thirty years
Patterns of marriage and parenthood
Female labor supply
Decline in marriage
Marriage proceeded by cohabitation
An increase in remarriage
Relationship between fertility and family is negative because a problem: the more children the higher the spending.
Joëlle Sleebos found a positive relationship: all policies which enhance female labor force participation and may also help to avoid low fertility rates.
Countries with higher female participation rates have higher fertility levels: Belgium, Finland, Denmark, Austria, United States, Norway, Sweden, Great Britain, Mexico and New Zeeland
Turkey: high fertility levels, low female participation
Chile: low fertility levels, high female participation
OECD Factbook 2013: fertility is an element of population growth, which reflects both the causes and effects of economic and social developments.
Total fertility rates in OECD countries have declined dramatically over the past few decades: from 2.7 in 1970 to 1.7 children per woman in the 2000s.
In all OECD countries, fertility rates declined for young women and increased at older ages.
Childfree in Chile
More than 275 thousand women decided decided not to have children ever.
Members of DINK: Double Income, No Kids: Men and women who decided to spend all the money in traveling or in personal projects.
“Being a mother will destroy my life plans that I have always wanted. I want to keep traveling. I imagine me as an old lady living in a beach house with memories of all the cities all around the world. I found a husband who shares the same feeling as me”. Antonia Alvarado.
New movements in favor of families: Fundación Jaime Guzmán
Babies and Bosses - Reconciling Work and Family Life: A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries
Many parents and children in OECD countries are happy with their existing work and care outcomes, while many others feel seriously constrained in one way or another.
Some people would like to have (more) children, but do not see how they could match that commitment with their employment situation.
If parents cannot achieve their desired work/family life balance, not only is their welfare lower but economic development is also curtailed through reduced labour supply by parents.
A reduction of birth rates has obvious implications for future labor supply as well as for the financial sustainability of social protection systems.
Monthly spending for a baby in the US: 847.63 USD
European Parliament member Licia Ronzulli votes in October 2010 to support raising maternity leave from 14 to 20 weeks while giving fathers two weeks to spend time with their newborn.
Source: CNN International.
An increasing convergence in social policies
Demographic and economic changes
Leas to common policy responses: ideal Nordic system or American system.
OR: nations will develop distinctive social policies in response to common global policy challenges depending upon national histories, culture and politics.
Few countries follow the pro-natalist social policies
It appears that countries with strong family policies have lower child poverty.
Thank you !
The chapter concentrates on families with children and the role of parents in childrearing accordingly.
Recent economic changes:
decline of industrial employment and expansion of service sector as a result of technological innovation. This resulted in:
1) low-paid, insecure jobs, with full male employment.
2) Growth in services brought female, including maternal, employment. The latter consequence increased pressure upon women in relation to balancing work and family life. But female employment is needed to avoid poverty.
The nations have switched from the breadwinner model to dual earner model of the family.
In order to show the effects of crisis on the discussed rates, the years 2000-2007 are analyzed. In most of the countries both female and maternal employment increased from 2000 to 2007 and dropped or remained stable after the recession. Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania and the United States experienced the biggest decrease in maternal employment after 2007, while the percentage of employed mothers actually increased in Austria, France, Israel, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. (OECD, 2014)
This chapter deals with an issue how states support families with children.
According to OECD data base, there are three types of spending on family benefits.
1) Child-related cash transfers to families with children.
2) Public spending on services for families with children.
3) Financial support for families provided through the tax system.
In many OECD countries, including Belgium, Germany, France, Ireland, Portugal, and Switzerland, support for families with children is performed according to the principle: the larger the family, the lower the taxable income.
OECD countries spend on average 2.55% of their GDP on family benefits. 4% of GDP or greater is spent on family benefits in Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom while public spending in this area is low at below 1.5% of GDP in Canada, Chile, Greece, Korea, Portugal, Mexico and the United States.
Total public spending is over 1.0% of GDP in France, New Zealand, the Nordic countries and the United Kingdom, while it is below 0.5% of GDP in Austria, Chile, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Japan, Portugal, the Slovak Republic and the United States. Pre-school spending is highest at over 0.7% of GDP in Denmark, Iceland and the United Kingdom, while childcare spending is only over 0.7% in the Nordic countries.
Public spending on childcare and early education
On average, in all OECD countries around 33% of children under the age of three used childcare facilities in 2010. However, while enrollment rates of young children were less than 10% in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Poland, Romania and the Slovak Republic, more than 50% of children in this age group were enrolled in formal childcare in Denmark, Iceland, Korea, the Netherlands and Norway.
Enrollment in childcare and pre-schools
Bradshaw, J. Family Benefits and Services. The Oxford Handbook of the Welfare State. Oxford Univerity Press, 2012. P. 462-478
Fertility. OECD Factbook 2013: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics. Available at: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/factbook-2013-en/01/01/02/index.html?itemId=/content/chapter/factbook-2013-2-enFemale labour force participation: Past trends and main determinants in OECD countries. OECD Economics Department, 2004. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/eco/labour/31743836.pdf
Altomonte, Guillermina. No queremos tener hijos, nunca. Paula Magazin, 2010. Available at: http://www.paula.cl/reportaje/no-quiero-tener-hijos-nunca/
Childfree.net Homepage. Available at: http://www.childfree.netBabies and Bosses: Reconciling work and family life. OECD Synthesis, 2007. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/els/family/babiesandbosses-reconcilingworkandfamilylifeasynthesisoffindingsforoecdcountries.htm
OECD Query, 2007. Available at: http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?QueryId=33817#
OECD Database, 2007. Available at: : http://www.oecd.org/els/soc/database.htm
OECD Maternal Employment by family statys, 2014. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/els/family/LMF_1_3_Maternal_employment_by_family_status_Aug2014.pdf
OECD Maternal Employment, 2014. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/els/family/LMF1_2_Maternal_Employment_Sep2014.pdf
OECD Childessness, 2014 Available at: http://www.oecd.org/els/family/SF_2_5_Childlessness_June2014.pdf
OECD Public spending on family benefits, 2013. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/els/family/PF1_1_Public_spending_on_family_benefits_Oct2013.pdf
OECD Public Spending on childcare and early education. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/els/family/PF3_1_Public_spending_on_childcare_and_early_education.pdf
OECD Enrolment in childcare and preschools.. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/els/family/PF3_2_Enrolment_in_childcare_and_preschools.pdf