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13.3 Mutations

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by

Kelli Trask

on 30 November 2016

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Transcript of 13.3 Mutations

13.3 Mutations
Think About it
The sequence of bases in DNA are like the letters of a coded message
What would happen if a few of those letters changed accidentally, altering the message?
What effects would you predict such changes to have on genes and the polypeptides for which they code?
Types of Mutations
mutations are heritable changes in genetic info
There are 2 types of mutations:
Gene mutations
Chromosomal mutations
Gene Mutation
Chromosomal Mutation
produce a change in a single gene
produce changes in an entire chromosome
Point mutation
involve a change in 1 or a few nucleotides
occur at a single point in the DNA sequence
generally occur during replication
Substitution- one base is changed in a different base
Insertion- base is added to the DNA sequence
Deletion- base is removed from the DNA sequence
AKA
Frameshift Mutations
They shift the "reading frame" on mRNA causing a change in the amino acid sequence
Frameshift mutations affect every amino acid after the insertion or deletion
Least harmful mutation
Either changes the number or structure of a chromosome
Deletion
Duplication
Inversion
Translocation
loss of all or part of a chromosome
an extra copy of all or part of a chromosome
Reverse in the direction of the chromosome
Part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another
Effects of Mutations
Effects of mutations can be positive or negative
Positives!
Mutations may be caused by chemical or physical agents in the environment known as mutagens
Many mutations are produced by errors in genetic processes
Mutagens can include:
pesticides
tobacco smoke
environmental pollutants
Negatives
Produce a variation that is advantageous to an organism
Some mutations cause no change in an organism
May produce a trait
which allows the organism
an advantage in the environment
in which they live
Mutations are a source of genetic
variability in organisms
Cause defective proteins
which will disrupt normal
biological activities
Mutagens can cause cancer- uncontrolled growth of cells
Sickle Cell: substitution mutation that causes the red blood cells to have a "sickle" shape and not be able to carry oxygen
Breeders often make use of "good" mutations
Ex: some insects have become resistant to chemical pesticides
Example:
Original: THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT
Insertion: THE
E
FA TCA TAT ETH ERA T
Deletion:
TE
F ATC ATA TET HER AT
or

THE CAT
ATE THE RAT (not a frameshift, but a point)
Full transcript