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Physics and Baking

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by

David Bostany

on 9 May 2013

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Transcript of Physics and Baking

Heat Transfer and Cookies Problem: Does baking soda have an effect on the baking process?

Hypothesis: We think that if baking soda is left out of the ingredients, the product will be mushy and not take a solid form.

Plan:
-Independent Variable: Baking Soda
-Dependent Variable: Time and Temperature
-Time, Temperature, and all the other ingredients besides baking soda need to stay constant. We will be manipulating the baking soda. History of Baking 2,500 B.C- Egyptians have mastered bread baking
Evidence shows they learned to bake from the Babylonians.
300 B.C- Pastry cook became an occupation for Romans.
Highly respected profession
Roman art of baking became known throughout Europe eventually spreading to eastern parts of Asia, and eventually the rest of the world.
1 A.D- 300+ pastry chefs in Rome creating all sorts of diverse foods.
The term baking earned the meaning of the use of HEAT in an oven to convert flour, water, yeast, sugar and such, into baked goods. Physics of Baking Thermal Conductivity - this describes how readily a material will give or take heat through conduction. A material with high thermal conductivity will transfer heat quickly, while a low conductivity material will transfer heat more slowly. Be careful - moving heat rapidly does not necessarily mean rapid temperature change. Experiment Results Scientific Method Cont. Conclusion Outcome The outcome of our experiment may have been affected if we didn't keep all of the other variables constant. For example, if we had not left each batch of cookies in the oven for exactly the same amount of time the cookies may have been affected. Another example would be if we opened the oven to check on the cookies at all. This would have let out some of the heat in the oven which might have affected the baking process of the cookies. Prediction We predict that if this experiment was repeated, the same results would most likely occur.

If we did a different experiment and left out the flour of one batch of cookies instead of the baking soda, the cookies would not rise, and our hypothesis would be correct. Royal Bakery of Ancient Egypt. House of Bakers in Pompeii In conclusion our hypothesis was completely incorrect. After baking the cookies, the ones without baking soda clearly rose more than the ones with baking soda. Leaving out the baking soda completely changed the texture of the cookie making it more doughy and spongy like bread and less like a crunchy cookie. Question #1 With baking soda No baking soda Q: How do different temperatures affect cooking speed? Question #2 Q: What chemical reactions take place during the cooking process? A: Depending upon what you’re cooking different chemical reactions take place. When baking cookies, the proteins in the flour combine to make gluten. This reaction is essential because without it your dough would not rise. Water and baking soda react together to make CO2 which makes the cookies rise in the oven. Another important chemical reaction that takes place in the oven is the evaporation of water which makes your moist cookie dough turn into crunchy delicious cookies. A: Temperature and cooking are directly proportional. When the temperature goes up the food is cooked faster. Question #4 Question #3 5 Questions Q: What effect does baking soda have on the baking process?


A: Baking soda reacts with water and forms CO2 and makes the cookies rise. Q: How does heat transfer from the oven to the baked good?

A: Convection: Heat is carried to the food by air. The food is surrounded by the hot air and is cooked by it. Question #5 Q: Does altitude affect baking?

A: Yes. At higher altitudes water evaporates quicker so you would need to put your cookies in the oven for less time or they will get too crunchy because all the moisture will evaporate. Heat Transfer: the movement of heat from one place to another. 3 main types transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of fluids or gases. Usually from a high temperature object to a lower temperature object. transfer of heat by means of molecular agitation within a material without any motion of the material at all. Conduction Convection Radiation Radiation Electromagnetic waves traveling through space hit an object and then transfer the heat to that object. By David Bostany and Gabbi Larson Scientific Method Flour
Water
Sugar
Baking Soda
Butter
Brown Sugar
Egg Ingredients Oven Mits Measuring Cup and Spoons
Wooden Spoon Cookie Sheet Oven Physics of Baking Cont. Physics of Baking Cont. Heat Capacity: how quickly a material's temperature changes with the addition of heat. Absorbance: The way in which a material absorbs radiation. Procedure:
-Heat oven to 375 degrees.
-Mix sugars, margarine and egg in a large bowl with a wooden spoon.
-Stir in flour, baking soda (only in one of the batches of dough), and salt.
-Stir in chocolate chips.
-Drop dough by rounded table spoonfuls about 3 inches apart onto an ungreased cookie sheet.
-Bake until light brown. 8-10 minutes.
-Let cookies cool slightly and then remove from cookie sheet with a spatula. In conclusion, baking soda is not the ingridient in cookies that makes them rise. It has a different job entirely. Our hypothesis that the cookies with out baking soda would not rise was incorrect. The cookies with out the baking soda did rise despite what we predicted. The baking soda had a very great effect on the texture of the cookies instead. The cookies with out the baking soda took more of a spongy biscuit-like texture, and the cookies with baking soda had the typical crispy cookie-like texture.
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