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Modern American Education: From the Progressive Movement to

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Lindsay Johnson

on 16 February 2014

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Transcript of Modern American Education: From the Progressive Movement to

Modern American Education: From the Progressive Movement to the Present
Growth in the United States
death rates
infant mortality rates
Medical improvement
Cities growing
Aquisition of Guam, Phillipines, Puero Rico, Hawaii, Virgin Islands, Panama Canal zone

Changes in Education
Advancmements in transportation led to larger schools and consolidation of rural school districts
State control of Education led to:
teacher certification
requirements for teacher education programs
requirements for school curriculum
school facility standards
financial support arrangements
School Population
Number of teachers
Longer school year

Educational Improvements, More Efficient Schools, Ridding of Political Corruption
Population Growth
Economic Growth
Production increase
Railrooads & Transportation
Telephone lines
"Dark Chapter"
Abuses in industry
"Robber Barons"
Business & Political Corruption
John Dewey
"The real spokesman for intellectual America in the Progressive Era"
Child-Centered Curriculum
= learning through experience
Believed that social, emotional, and physical needs are to be considered in education in order for it to be effectiv
Made a huge impact on modern education
Professor of Philosophy & Pedagogy & lab coordinator @ the University of Chicago
Goal of education is to promote child development and preparation to participate in a democratic society
Progressive Education Association
Interest Provides the Motivation For All Work
The Teacher as a Guide
in the Learning Process
The Scientific Study
of Pupil Development
Greater Attention to Everything That Affects the Child's Physical Development
Cooperation Between the School and Home in Meeting the Natural Interests and Activities of the Child
The Child's Freedom
to Develop Naturally
The Progressive School
Should be a Leader in Educational Movements
8 Year Study
Students attending progressive high schools (as compared to traditional high schools):
Achieved higher
Better socially adjusted
Influence on Higher Education
Making schools more sanitary
Better air circulation
More sunlight
Increase of creative activity
Lower teacher-student ratio
Health care
Food service
Francis W. Parker
"Learning should emanate from the interests and needs of the child"
Activity-based curriculum encourages students to express their creativity
Influence of art, nature studies, field trips, and social activities
Integrating subjects

Higher enrollments in universities, junior colleges, and teacher education institutions

The Measurement Movement
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
"a number indicating the level of an individual's mental development"
World War 2
measurement tests were used to determine if men were able to serve in the military, and what type of service
found that many young men had educational and physical deficiencies ~1/4 illiterate
helped to bring the measurement movement a part of American Education
Misuses of Tests
Comparisons without consideration of differences in school population

Judgements about quality of teaching

Subjective judgements about students' potential
WWII's Impact on Schools
Teachers left schools to join the war
Students chose not to attend school
1/3 of teachers left their teaching jobs
Educational financial support reduced in order to fund the war
College enrollment declined
The Postwar Years
Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944
[G.I. Bill of Rights]
Provided benefits to veterans of World War II, Korean, Cold, & Vietnam wars to help with furthering education
Life Adjustment Education
Focus on functional objectives (vocation & health)
Rejected traditional academic studies
Criticized: "It continued an abundance of slogans, jargon, and various anti-intellectualism; it carried the utilitarianism and group conformism of latter-day progressivism to its ultimate trivialization"
Maria Montessori
First woman to acquire a medical degree in Italy
Montessori Method: individualized method of teaching that emphasizes sensory training, with interest and motivation being the center of the method; designed to help with development of self-discipline and self-confidence
Montessori Movement
Before world war: Montessori Method introduced to the United States
1950's: second round of interest in the U.S. due to parents in search of early childhood programs that tailored more to academics
1960's: Head Start programs started to acquire Montessori Method
Federal government had an influence on elementary and secondary education by funding specific educational subjects (specifically math, science, & foreign languages)
New revisions to math, chemistry, grammar, etc.
Launching of Sputnik- produced fear in America which led to significant changes in American Education
Spiral curriculum- "subject matter is presented over a number of grades with increasing complexity and abstraction"
Gave an opening for the federal government to have more influence and involvement in education for years to come
Education and
the War on Poverty
1/4 of the population living in poverty
rising crime rates

decline in military population due to less qualified applicants

social and economic problems
Linking of
Education and Poverty
"cultural deprivation of the poor was attributable to lack of education"

believed that education and employment skills could be provided for the poor in order to break the "cycle of poverty"
John F. Kennedy & Lyndon B. Johnson declared War on Poverty
subsidized low-income housing

health care improvements

welfare services expanded

job retraining became available

improvements in inner-city schools
The Civil Rights Movement
Brown vs. Board of Education
The end off segregated public schools, but not necessarily equal (DVD: Struggle for Educational Equality: 1950-1980)
Began the Civil Rights Movement of equality of women, racial & ethnic groups, elderly, and disabled
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Title VI: "prohibits discrimination against students on the basis of race, color, or national origin in all institutions receiving federal funds"

Title VII: "forbids discrimination in employment based on race, religion, national origin, or sex"
Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 enacted
Financial Uncertainty for schools
Declining test scores (SAT scores dropped 60 points in the decade)
Public confidence in schools decreased
Renewed conservatism & reform
higher graduation requirements

standardized curriculum

increased testing (both students & teachers)

raised certification requirements for teachers
Goals 2000: Educate America Act
8 Goals for American Education that should be reached by year 2000
Requirement of states to have improvement plans in place
"Standards" & "Accountability"
Election of President Bill Clinton for 2 terms
Record enrollments in public schools- "baby boom echo"
School choice
Charter School support
Columbine High School shooting
symbolized the crisis in American schools: violence
A New Century
No Child Left Behind
every state must have developed standards for what every child should know and learn in math and reading
95% of all students in grades 3 through 8 must be tested annually
Students in grades 10, 11, & 12 must be tested 1 time to determine their progress in meeting the standards
Adequate Yearly Progress: all of the subgroups must pass AYP or the entire school will be considered to be under performing and at risk to be placed on the "need of improvement" list
Highly qualified teacher requirement: all teachers must have a minimum of a bachelor's degree, a full state certification & licensure, and competency defined by the state
Obama Administration: Increased Federal Involvement
U.S. Department of Education must approve state testing programs, accountability plans, and enforces NCLB provisions
Race to the Top school reform program: largest competitive grant program
Awards based on:
"Adopting standard and assessments that are valid and reliable for all students and that prepare students to succeed in college and the workplace and to compete in the global economy"
"Building data systems that measure student growth and success and inform teachers and principals about how they can improve instruction"
"Recruiting, developing, rewarding, and retaining effective teachers and principals, especially where they are needed most"
"Providing the support and interventions necessary to turn around the lowest-achieving schools"
2011: Waivers and flexibility granted to states in meeting NCLB proficiency standards
Philosophy of Education
[0:00-2:40, 6:37-7:03]
I chose to do my Historical Foundations Project on Chapter 7: Modern American Education: From the Progressive Movement to the Present because my Philosophy of Education is Progressivism and I found that I can relate to this chapter the most.
Webb, L.D., Metha, A., & Jordan, K. F. (2013).
Foundations of American Education
(7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Curiel, A. (2010).
The Story of American Public Education-The Bottom Line in Education-1980-Present.
[Video File]. Retrieved from: Vimeo
Curiel, A. (2010).
The Story of American Public Education-Struggle for Educational Equality-1950-1980.
[Video File]. Retrieved from: Vimeo
Raspberries4513. (2013, May 6). Progressivism in Education. [Video File]. Retrieved from: Youtube
Full transcript