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Exploring School-Based Restorative Practices

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Raphi Kunkel

on 28 May 2015

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Transcript of Exploring School-Based Restorative Practices

Training Overview
Part I
Let's Explore
Goals and guiding questions
Understand the harm and develop empathy for both the harmed and harmer
Listen and respond to the needs of the person harmed and the harmer
Encourage accountability and responsibility through personal reflection
Reintegrate the harmer and harmed into the community as valued memebrs
Create caring climates to support healthy communities
Change the system when it contributes to the harm
Who has been hurt?
Guiding Questions
What are their needs?
Whose obligations are they?
What are the causes?
Who has a "stake" in this?
What is the appropriate process to involve stakeholders in an effort to put things right?
Videos
Reentry Circle
Community Building Circle
Restorative Discipline in Schools
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Circle Processes
The guidelines are:
Respect the talking piece: everyone listens, everyone has a turn
Speak from your heart: youth truth, your perspectives, your experiences
Listen from your heart: let go of stories that make it hard to hear each other
Trust that you will know what to say: no need to rehearse
Say just enough without feeling rushed, be concise and considerate of the time of others.
Circle Preparation:
Understanding role of Circle Keeper
Circle set up
Identifying clear purpose of Circle
Thoughtfully selecting circle prompts (considering high and low risk questions)
Selecting talking piece

Circle Keeping:
Introducing the Circle
Reviewing Circle Guidelines
Circle Opening
Circle rounds: Introducing prompts
Closing of Circle

School-Based
Restorative Practices

Restorative Principles and Practices
What's the issue?
Why is this effective?
What does this look like in action?
The fight
From a traditional discipline perspective, how would a school respond to this incident?

What is the likely discipline outcome?

Who is held accountable? How?
School-to-Prison Pipeline
Policies that encourage police presence at schools, harsh tactics including physical restraint, and automatic punishments that result in suspensions and out-of-class time are huge contributors to the pipeline, but the problem is more complex than that....
Teaching Tolerance, The School-to-Prison Pipeline, Number 43: Spring 2013
The school-to-prison pipeline starts
(or is best avoided)
in the classroom.
U.S. Department of Education
U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights
School Pushout
More than 70 percent of students arrested in school-related incidents or referred to law enforcement are black or Hispanic.
Racial minorities and children with disabilities—are disproportionately represented in the school-to-prison pipeline.
Infographic from SuspensionStories.com
Who is in the "pipeline"?
The “school-to-prison pipeline” refers to the policies and practices that push our nation’s schoolchildren, especially our most at-risk children, out of classrooms and into the juvenile and criminal justice systems.
Nationally schools are suspending and expelling students at a rate of more than double that of 1974.
The majority of suspensions are for minor misbehavior
Exclusionary discipline increases a child's likelihood of involvement with the justice system
Young people who drop out of high school, many of whom have experienced suspension or explosion, are more than 8x as likely to be incarcerated as those who graduate.
Likelihood that a student will be expelled in relation to white peers:
African-American: 3.5x
Latino: 2x
American Indian: 1.5x
Dignity in Schools
Youth with 3 or more suspensions are 5x more likely to drop out of school.
Limitations of punishment
Stigmatization
Does not address the root cause or what is out of balance
The Shame Compass
"Discipline"
The word "discipline" means "to teach"
What is our responsibility as educators and community members?
Are we using discipline that teaches new and needed skills? Increases understanding? And trains youth to be pro-social members of our community?
Restorative Justice Principles & Values
Definition
"What is fundamental about restorative justice (practices) is a shift away from thinking about laws being broken, who broke the law, and how we punish the people who broke the laws. There's a shift to: there was a harm caused, or there's a disagreement or dispute, there's a conflict, and how do we repair the harm, address the conflict, meet the needs, so that relationships and community can be repaired and restored. It's a different orientation. It's a shift."
Cheryl Graves, Community Justice for Youth Institute
Traditional
No opportunity for remorse or amends
Contrast
Restorative
Opportunity given for amends & expression of remorse
Restorative Principles
The values are your compass
Empathy & The Brain
The amygdala is an almond-shaped organ deep in each of the hemispheres in the brain that is thought to be the center for empathy.
More empathetic people have larger, more active amygdala.
Deficient amagdala lead to lack of empathy and immoral behavior.
Studies have shown the amygdala can show neurogenesis (growth of new brain cells).
However, stress hormones inhibit the brains ability to create new brain cells. The more stress, the less brain development, which in turn creates less adaptability and increased levels of stress.
Daniel Reisel: The neuroscience of restorative justice
aclu.org
Restorative Practices are based on principles and processes that emphasize the importance of positive relationships as central to building community and repairing relationships when harm has occurred.
San Francisco Unified School District
School & rules violated
Justice focuses of establishing guilt
Accountability = punishment
Justice directed at offender, victim ignored
Rules & intent outweigh whether outcome is positive/negative
People & relationships violated
Justice identifies needs & obligations
Accountability = understanding impact, repairing harm
Offender, victim & school all have direct role in justice process
Offender is responsible for harmful behavior, repairing harm & working toward positive outcomes
Activity: Engage with Restorative Principles Handout!
Language
Community
Repairing the harm
Identifying needs
Understanding impact
Taking responsibility
Debrief together
Results
Findings from Schools Implementing Restorative Practices
Improving school climate
West Philadelphia High School
Violent acts and serious incidents were down 52% during the first year of implementation and an additional 40% the second year
A report from the International Institute for Restorative Practices
Disorderly conduct incidents dropped from 43 to 12
Pottstown High School
Misbehavior/Timeout/Detention sanctions dropped from 149 to 37 in one year
Palisades Middle School
Teacher referrals for discipline dropped 60% from 636 to 386 in one year
Springfield Township High School
Incidents of inappropriate behavior dropped from 99 to 32 in one year
Classroom disruptions dropped from 90 to 26 that same year
Colorado High School
Application and models
Informal
Formal
Closing Circle
School Climate
A safer and more caring environment
A reduction in bullying and other interpersonal conflicts
Increase in attendance and graduation rates
Reductions in suspensions and explosions
Increased confidence amongst staff to deal with challenging situations
Greater sense of belonging
Decrease in discipline referrals due to improved school climate
Responding to Harm
Implementation
Building Relationships & Community
Overview of Restorative Practices
Increase in academic performance
Facts from Dignity in Schools
Three core components of
Fair Process
:
Fair process
Relationship & Community Building
Restorative Interventions
Community Building Circle
Compare/Contrast Traditional & Restorative Approaches
Scope of School Discipline Issues & Challenges
Restorative Principles & Values
Data & Results
What it looks like in action
Agenda
It's not what you do
It's how you do it

Agenda
Opening Circle
Social Discipline Window
Strengths-Based Approach
Inclusive Decision Making & Fair Process
Role Play
Communication & Affective Language
Community Building Circles
Closing Circle
"Human beings are happier, more cooperative and productive, and more likely to make positive changes in their behavior when those in positions of authority do things
with
them, rather than to them or for them."
-Ted Wachtel
Social Discipline Window
Activity
Which box on the social discipline window do you find yourself in most?
Pair and share:
1 - Engagement:
Involving individuals in decisions that affect them by asking for their input and allowing them to refute the merit of one another’s ideas.
2 - Explanation:
Everyone involved and affected understands why final decisions are made as they are.
3 - Expectation Clarity:
Once decisions are made, new expectations are clearly stated so that everyone understands their role and what is expected of them.
Strengths-Based Approach
Policies, practices, and strategies that identify and draw upon the strengths of youth, families, and communities.

Involves a shift from a deficit approach, which emphasizes problems, to a positive partnership with the youth.

Acknowledges the youth's unique set of strengths and challenges, and engages the youth as a partner in developing and implementing a plan for success.
Activity
Pair up!
Select your role for this activity
"Administrators", lead a conversation with your "Student" using what you have learned from the social discipline window, strengths-based approach, and fair process.
Debrief as a group
Communication
Active Listening
I-Statements
Affective Language
Community Building circles
In Action
What are the obstacles and challenges that keep you from working in the restorative box?
Try to use what you have learned from...
Social Discipline Window
Strengths-Based Approach
Fair Process
Engagement
Explanation
Expectation Clarity
Activity
Stand in a circle
When you toss the ball, give an example of student or staff behavior (think of positive and negative behaviors)
When you catch the ball, offer an affective statement for the example that was just tossed to you
Example toss:
Student doesn't turn in homework
Example catch:
I'm concerned about you falling behind in class because you are not turning in your homework.
Closing Circle
a
b
Different types of community building circles
Morning meetings
Getting to know you
Curriculum Circle
Brainstorming ideas
Goal setting
Transition Circle
Student-chosen discussion topics
Staff Support/Meeting Circles
End of day report out
Ask
Restate Content
Reflect Feelings
Summarize
to listen
chinese character
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Self identify what you are feeling/how you are impacted
Self identify the specific action or behavior that you are responding to
Bring 1 & 2 together in an authentic expression
I-Statements expressing a feeling
Make students aware of positive/negative impact of actions
Precisely describe behavior & specific impact
Do NOT protect student from consequences of behavior
Delivered in a time frame, place and manner most likely to maximize impact
Delivered in a personalized manner directly to the student who impacted others
Focus on the behavior, NOT on the intrinsic worth of the person
Respectful in tone
Encourage students to express feelings
Format:
i. Opening
Guidelines/Values/Talking Piece
ii. Check-in/Ice Breaker
iii. Discussion Rounds
iv. Closing
Application:
Scenario: John is using profane language and putting down other students. You notice this behavior has increased in general among the students in your class.
Positive Statement to John:
Positive Statement to entire class:
Redirecting statement to John in private:
Redirecting statement to entire class:
Affective Statements
You're on your way!
Informal
Formal
Fair process
Affective Language
Social Discipline Window
Strengths-Based Approach
Active Listening
I-Messages
You're frustrating me
vs.
I'm feeling very frustrated by your pencil tapping
What an "I" Statement is not
I think you're a liar
I feel like you stink at listening
Not about being polite or "soft", it's about being clear
Not a resolution or solution to an issue or conflict
Not guaranteed to make a person respond how you want
When we need to confront others about their behavior
When we feel others are not treating us right
When we feel defensive or angry
When others are angry with us
Authentic expression of feelings in response to specific actions/behaviors
Incorporates both the particular BEHAVIOR/ACTION and the resulting FEELING/IMPACT
Use to both praise and redirect behaviors
Recommended: 5 praising statement to every 1 redirecting statement
Create an Affective Statement
John, I appreciate how respectfully you are speaking to the other student. Keep up the good work!
I'm feeling very proud of you all because I heard a lot of supportive comments in class today.
John, I feel very disrespected when you speak over me while I'm teaching.
I'm feeling very uncomfortable with the number of put downs I am hearing because it creates a very negative environment in our classroom.
High Quality Affective Statements
Affective Statement Stems
Positive
Redirecting/Corrective
I am so proud to see...
I am so appreciative of your...
I feel thankful for...
I am excited to see...
I am so pleased to hear...
I am impressed by...
I feel so happy because...
I am worried by...
I am upset that...
I am feeling irritated by...
I am feeling distracted by...
I am having a hard time understanding...
I am concerned about...
I am angry about...
Homework assignment:
Practice Affective Statements! Report back next time!
When to use I-Statements
Instead of pointing fingers and establishing blame, identify needs, feelings, and impacts
Restorative Modalities
Agenda
Welcome
Check in
Restorative JUSTICE (working with those harmed)
Making Things Right/Repairing The Harm
Restorative Questions
Role Play?
Continuum of Restorative Modalities
Restorative Spectrum Activity
Closing
Additional Materials
Restorative Questions
Top 5 questions
What happened?
What were you thinking and feeling at the time?
Who was affected by what happened? How?
What can you do to make things right? How?
What support do you need from others?
Activity
Demo
Role Play
Restorative Questions
Some Pitfalls
Judging
Advice giving
Blaming
Poor listening
Not allowing time/space for person to share
Not including person in problem-solving
Fixing the problem for the person
...What else?
Restorative justice
Needs of people who have been harmed
Information
Acknowledgment
Empowerment
Truth-telling
Working with people who have been harmed
Provide safety
Validate
Encourage
Empower! (DO NOT FORCE ANYTHING ON THEM)
Restorative Worksheet
A tool that can be used to support learning, accountability, and reparation.
What?
When?
As a tool for self reflection and to prepare for other processes.
Why?
Gives students an opportunity to self-reflect and look at impacts of actions.
Restorative Chat
What?
Non-prepared
Quick conversation with one party
Includes those involved in a situation to speak, be heard, self reflect, and address how to move forward
When?
How?
Behavioral issue that does not involve a major harm to a person or the school community
Use Affective Language
Use the restorative questions
A follow up may occur if necessary
Making Things Right
Accountability
Acknowledging I caused harm
Recognizing I had a choice
Understanding the harm from the other person's perspective
Making things right
Taking steps to make sure it doesn't happen again
Restorative Contract Outcomes
Restorative Community Service
Impromptu Restorative Meeting
What?
Face-to-face meeting with minimal (or no) preparation between those who have caused harm and those who have been harmed.
When?
Behavioral issue that does not involve a major harm to a person or the school community
Can be used to address a spontaneous issue (in the moment) between two people or to respond to an incident after the fact.
How?
Revisit
What happened?
What did you think and feel when you realized what happened?
How did this impact you and others?
What has been the hardest thing for you?
What needs to happen to make things right?
For those that have caused harm
For those that have been harmed
How can you imagine PHS using this?
Use restorative questions
Allow for equal sharing for all parties involved
May require more formal process and follow up
Responsive Circle
What?
Flexible yet structured
Brings together a group that has been affected by a harm
When?
Low level bullying
Low level poor behavior
Misunderstanding
How?
Create an opening circle
Set agreements
Ask questions
Create contract if necessary
Restorative Dialogue/Conference
What?
Formal, Structured and Facilitated
Involves preparation (can be extensive)
Brings together all those impacted by a harm to listen and decide on a resolution to the harm
When?
Destructive behavior, bullying, conflicts, other harmful behavior
How?
Incident, Preparation, Conference, Contract, Follow up
Involve a high level of skill and training (preparation is key)
Those involved wish to take part (voluntary)
The wrong-doer accepts responsibility for his/her actions
A trained & neutral facilitator is available
Restorative Programs
Community Accountability Boards
Student Peer Mediation
Restorative Teen Panels
How restorative is this?
Not Restorative
Restorative
Restorative-ish
Closing
Next Time: Implementation Discussion
Thoughts?
Comments?
Questions?
Check out: What are the possibilities?
Restorative Questions
Pair up and choose who will be Person A & Person B
Person A: A time you experienced harm
Person B: A time you caused harm
Who has been harmed?
What do they need?
Whose obligation is it to repair the harm?
What is the best process to engage the stakeholders and move forward?
Working with people that have been harmed
Punishment versus Natural Consequences
Fair Process
Letters of Responsibility
Competency Development
Direct Repair of Harm
Social Agreements
Academic Improvement
Special Projects
Restitution
Repair the harm
Get creative!
Implementation Conversation
Where do you fit? Where do you see others?
Implementation Team
Consider:
1-2 Administrators
2 Restorative Practices Leaders
4-6 Staff (including RP leaders)
1 Parent Leader
1-2 Students
What will this look like at PHS?
Restorative Practices
Agenda
Introduction
What are the limitations and challenges?
What are Restorative Practices?
What do RP look like?
Why is it effective?
How can RP be implemented?
Limitations of Punishment
School Push Out
2-Hour Introduction
Scenario
When the discipline process is complete, what do you want to see happen for all of the parties?
Does this response...
support Brandon in taking responsibility?
restore the social relationships and environment?
meet the needs of all involved?
help Brandon learn from his experience and prevent future occurrence?
Restorative Principles and Values
Contrast
Traditional
No opportunity for remorse or amends
Restorative
Opportunity given for amends & expression of remorse
School & rules violated
Justice focuses of establishing guilt
Accountability = punishment
Justice directed at offender, victim ignored
Rules & intent outweigh whether outcome is positive/negative
People & relationships violated
Justice identifies needs & obligations
Accountability = understanding impact, repairing harm
Offender, victim & school all have direct role in justice process
Offender is responsible for harmful behavior, repairing harm & working toward positive outcomes
Restorative Practices are based on principles and processes that emphasize the importance of positive relationships as central to building community and repairing relationships when harm has occurred.
San Francisco Unified School District
The Values are Your Compass
Human beings are happier, more cooperative and productive, and more likely to make positive changes in their behavior when those in positions of authority do things
with
them, rather than to them or for them.
-Ted Wachtel
Social Discipline Window
Restorative Modalities
PBIS & RP
Focuses on Social and Emotional Learning and Positive Discipline
Utilizes a Whole School approach
Emphasizes importance of adult behavior and awareness to support change for students.
Builds assets and protective factors
Identifies and encourages positive behaviors
Let's Take Look
Results
Findings from Schools Implementing Restorative Practices
Improving school climate
West Philadelphia High School
Violent acts and serious incidents were down 52% during the first year of implementation and an additional 40% the second year
A report from the International Institute for Restorative Practices
Disorderly conduct incidents dropped from 43 to 12
Pottstown High School
Misbehavior/Timeout/Detention sanctions dropped from 149 to 37 in one year
Palisades Middle School
Teacher referrals for discipline dropped 60% from 636 to 386 in one year
Springfield Township High School
Incidents of inappropriate behavior dropped from 99 to 32 in one year
Classroom disruptions dropped from 90 to 26 that same year
Implementation
Multiple year & multiple stage plan
Commitment involves
Training all staff
Data tracking and collection
Identifying an RP Coordinator
Examining & potentially adjusting systems and policies
Closing
Scenario Take 2
Does this response...
support Brandon in taking responsibility?
restore the social relationships and environment?
meet the needs of all involved?
help Brandon learn from his experience and prevent future occurrence?
Top 5 questions
What happened?
What were you thinking and feeling at the time?
Who was affected by what happened? How?
What can you do to make things right? How?
What support do you need from others?
Restorative Questions
What happened?
What did you think and feel when you realized what happened?
How did this impact you and others?
What has been the hardest thing for you?
What needs to happen to make things right?
For those that have caused harm
For those that have been harmed
Improves school climate and safety.
Decreases disciplinary actions and referrals.
Creates a more effective teaching and learning environment.
Promotes accountability.
Addresses “school-to-prison pipeline”.
Builds social and emotional competencies.
Addresses root cause of problem and not just the symptom of the behavior.
Shows quantitative results.

Why use restorative practices?
Restorative Principles and Values
Restorative Practices are based on principles and processes that emphasize the importance of positive relationships as central to building community and repairing relationships when harm has occurred.
San Francisco Unified School District
Human beings are happier, more cooperative and productive, and more likely to make positive changes in their behavior when those in positions of authority do things
with
them, rather than to them or for them.
-Ted Wachtel
Social Discipline Window
Contrast
Traditional
No opportunity for remorse or amends
Restorative
Opportunity given for amends & expression of remorse
School & rules violated
Justice focuses of establishing guilt
Accountability = punishment
Justice directed at offender, victim ignored
Rules & intent outweigh whether outcome is positive/negative
People & relationships violated
Justice identifies needs & obligations
Accountability = understanding impact, repairing harm
Offender, victim & school all have direct role in justice process
Offender is responsible for harmful behavior, repairing harm & working toward positive outcomes
School Push Out
Implementation
Multiple year & multiple stage plan
Commitment involves
Training all staff
Data tracking and collection
Identifying an RP Coordinator
Examining & potentially adjusting systems and policies
Results
Findings from Schools Implementing Restorative Practices
Improving school climate
West Philadelphia High School
Violent acts and serious incidents were down 52% during the first year of implementation and an additional 40% the second year
A report from the International Institute for Restorative Practices
Disorderly conduct incidents dropped from 43 to 12
Pottstown High School
Misbehavior/Timeout/Detention sanctions dropped from 149 to 37 in one year
Palisades Middle School
Teacher referrals for discipline dropped 60% from 636 to 386 in one year
Springfield Township High School
Incidents of inappropriate behavior dropped from 99 to 32 in one year
Classroom disruptions dropped from 90 to 26 that same year
Improves school climate and safety.
Decreases disciplinary actions and referrals.
Creates a more effective teaching and learning environment.
Promotes accountability.
Addresses “school-to-prison pipeline”.
Builds social and emotional competencies.
Addresses root cause of problem and not just the symptom of the behavior.
Shows quantitative results.

Why use restorative practices?
Restorative Practices
PHS
Does not separate the deed from the doer
Teacher, Janitor, Principal, Youth, Others?
DISCIPLINE means
"to teach"
Fair Process
Outcomes of a Restorative Process
Genuine apology received
Harm Acknowledged
Problem resolved
Behavior changed
Relationships repaired
Lessons learned
Truth telling promoted
Responsibility taken
Recidivism reduced
Education continued
Criminalization avoided
Three core components of
Fair Process
:
1 - Engagement:
Involving individuals in decisions that affect them by asking for their input and allowing them to refute the merit of one another’s ideas.
2 - Explanation:
Everyone involved and affected understands why final decisions are made as they are.
3 - Expectation Clarity:
Once decisions are made, new expectations are clearly stated so that everyone understands their role and what is expected of them.
Does not address what is out of balance
Creates Nonconstructive Shame
Stigmatization occurs
Does not teach social and emotional competencies
Does not include the voices of impacted people or the community
Often unrelated to the offense
It's not what you do,
It's how you do it
Principles of Restorative Justice
Please engage with your handout
Restorative Modalities
Collaboration
Respect
Inclusion
Empowerment
Connection
Accountability
Flexibility
Honesty
Transparency
Full transcript