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Political, Economic, and Social Effects of WWII
Transcript of Political, Economic, and Social Effects of WWII
Many factories that were able to convert from war production to private companies
Ex: gun factories turned into camera factories
US Occupation (1946-1949)
500 million annually from US
Almost complete employment
Allowed Japanese gov't to fund businesses and lead to growth (ex. technological advances)
-Many African Americans served in the war. Overseas they found that the racism that was found in the United States was not international.
-things like this led to differing thoughts from African Americans about equality.
-They fought against racism in Germany, then faced racism at home
-The NCAAP grew from 50,000 members to 500,000 members
-Roosevelt passed Order 8802 which prohibited racial discrimination in job training programs and by defense contractors. To enforce this he established a Fair Employment Practices Committee
-400,000 Mexican Americans served in the armed forces during the war
-After Pearl Harbor, many farm workers were needed
- the United States established the Bracero (work hands) Program which led to hundreds of thousands of Mexicans immigrating into the Southwest United States
-Commercial farmers supported this by labor unions hated it
-this immigration led to a lot of animosity and discrimination against Mexican Americans
-Views on war were changed as well.
-bombing cities and harming civilians was considered much more heinous prior to WW2
-Suburbs blew up after the war. Levittown, New York was created as a suburb. Many of these “Suburbians” were veterans of the war and their families.
-Home ownership and college attendance both grew in the united states after the war because the GI bill made both of these more economically viable for veterans
The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as super powers
After ww2 the soviet union annexed or converted countries into soviet socialist republics
Soviet satellite states rose in Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Albania, and East Germany
The united states obtained navel bases in Europe.
monopoly on nuclear weapons
Italy and japan lost their colonies.
Many european and french colonies gained saw a rise in nationalism
they Independence due to a rise in nationalism, and because the mother country was weakened due to WW2.
-The Jewish population in Germany dropped due to the holocaust
-Many Jews immigrated to other countries
-Many men died in the war, which changed to gender ration in the combatant nations
-More out of wedlock births directly after and during the war due to change in ratio
-During the war, many women entered the work force to fill the void left by the men who are at war
-Women left the workforce once they men came back, but women’s’ views on working had been changed forever
Reduction in consumption=less jobs=more unemployed
War bubble had officially popped
As a result, the government had dug an enormous public debt from the war
Reverted to the same growth trend during 1933-1937
Economic growth decline due to lack of government spending
A more equal distribution of wealth
Future advanced consumer economy
Hitler’s price controls
After war, Allied powers kept price controls and rationing in place
June 20, 1948
New currency, deutsche marks (DM)
Abolished controls/rationing of food
Clay:“Herr Erhard, my advisers tell me what you have done is a terrible mistake. What do you say to that?”
Erhard:“Herr General, pay no attention to them! My advisers tell me the same thing.”
Hartrich also tells of Erhard’s confrontation with a U.S. Army colonel the same month:
Colonel:“How dare you relax our rationing system, when there is a widespread food shortage?”
Erhard:“But, Herr Oberst. I have not relaxed rationing; I have abolished it! Henceforth, the only rationing ticket the people will need will be the deutschemark. And they will work hard to get these deutschemarks, just wait and see.”
Pasted from: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/GermanEconomicMiracle.html
Technological advancements made during the war could be used for economic growth
Destruction from bombing caused increase in reconstruction jobs
Established Welfare State
Bretton Woods Conference
Aimed to prevent future depression
Held in New Hampshire
Led to the development of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank
1/4 of capital resources destroyed
Loans from Sweden and Britain
Refused U.S. aid
Reconstruction consisted of heavy increase in industry
Zhdanovshchina ("era of Zhdanov")
Socialism over capitalism
Do you think that Japan would be as economically successful if the U.S. hadn’t intervened?
After the war, the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Communist Chinese forces resumed their civil war
The fight against the Japanese had strengthened popular support among the Chinese for the Communist guerrilla forces while it weakened the KMT
Communist forces were ultimately victorious and established the People's Republic of China
Japans loss in ww2 created a power vacuum in vietnam
Viet Minh took power in the August Revolution, declaring the independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam, however
However, the Allies (including the Soviet Union) all agreed that the area belonged to the French
The United Nations