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7th and 8th Grade: European History
Transcript of 7th and 8th Grade: European History
- THE PROCESS OF
THE PROCESS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
- AGRARIAN -
- INDUSTRIAL -
they are known for their...
it is oriented towards...
is the opposite of...
it happens in...
REVOLUTION (1870 - 1914)
brings with it...
it is used in...
Examples: Roman Empire, Middle Ages, Muslim Kingdoms, Ancient China, Ancient India, African Kingdoms, Inca Empire, Aztec Empire.
STRUGGLE FOR POWER IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN SOCIETIES
The advent of the XVIII century brought to Europe a time of great expansion and economic prosperity.
Which gave birth to the Industrial Revolution.
Which changed the world by alternating economic control from:
monarchies (in charge of ruling through divine will) who had power through Mercantilistic policies (enforced through the power of the army)
To Bourgeoisie (in charge of the means of production).
Revolutions begun (American, French, Latin American).
Which tried to shift power from Monarchies to the Bourgeoisie.
This gave nations a new sense of purpose and Constitutions were created to protect the rights of the Bourgeoisie from the nobility.
Bourgeoisie now had control of national economies and politics.
Workers however had little rights and their conditions were horrible.
A new wave of similar Revolutions would then try to shift power from the Bourgeoisie to the Proletariat (workers).
The XIX Century
is a time of...
Old Regime Ideologies
it is organized in...
tries to get rid of the influences of...
which contributed with
the development of...
with the purpose of...
DIVISION OF POWER
Is slowly achieved through...
Worker Parties and Associations
Wider voting population
two types of freedom...
ruled by a...
TO WRITE DOWN AND FOLLOW A...
Give rise to...
Based on historical factors
Based on Popular Will
A GOVERNMENT'S POWER COMES FROM THE CONSENT OF THE PEOPLE.
LIFE, LIBERTY AND PROPERTY.
THE PURPOSE OF THE GOVERNMENT IS TO PROTECT THESE NATURAL RIGHTS.
POWER SHOULD BE A CHECK TO POWER
BARON DE MONTESQUIEU
BELIEVED ENGLAND TO BE THE BEST-GOVERNED COUNTRY OF HIS OWN DAY.
SEPARATION OF POWERS. EACH BRANCH OF THE GOVERNMENT CONTROLS THE OTHER.
MAN IS BORN FREE, AND EVERYWHERE HE IS IN CHAINS
JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU
DIRECT DEMOCRACY IS THE ONLY WAY TO ORGANIZE A SOCIETY.
ELECTIONS AND DEMOCRACY ARE THE ONLY WAY TO CONTROL THE STATE AND MAKE IT FAIR.
IN FAVOUR OF THE ABOLISHMENT OF TORTURE
LAWS EXIST TO PRESERVE SOCIAL ORDER, NOT TO AVENGE CRIMES.
CRUSH THE EVIL THING!
FRANCOIS MARIE AROUET (VOLTAIRE)
RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE IS THE ONLY WAY FOR A SOCIETY TO LIVE IN HARMONY.
VOLTAIRE FOUGHT THE CLERGY AND THE ARISTOCRACY.
THE IDEA WAS TO CREATE A CONSTITUTION = A BODY OF LAWS THAT PROTECTED THE PEOPLE.
ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS GAVE FORM
THE CONSTITUTION TOOK INTO ACCOUNT IDEAS BASED ON A THREE BRANCH STATE: LEGISLATIVE, EXECUTIVE, JUDICIAL, THE RIGHTS OF THE PEOPLE AND THE IDEAS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT.
A CHANGE IN POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC MENTALITY
A political system based on the rule of one individual chosen by a superior force
- (Divine Will)
- Military victory
-An elite that elects him/her
Who inherits his/her power to loyal friends or, especially, family members (usually the firstborn son).
They have absolute control over society having the power to create and apply law at his behest (desire) and sanction with any punishment he/she so wishes.
An economic system based on government control of trade and goods to establish a centralised power, usually for the benefit of:
- the king
- a company (joint-stock or private)
- a nation
With the sole purpose of making the centre of government more powerful through:
- control of trade and money
- control of a large army
Mercantilism allowed kings to centralize power through the use of lare armies and control markets, regulating:
- who could sell what to whom
- what things could be bought
- the price of things
- the wages (salaries)
This meant little freedom, no rights and complete government control
justified through tradition and religion
The slow rise of a new social class, common people who made money.
This social class started to appear at the end of the Middle Ages with the Financial Revolution.
Having the money to live better, some families started to invest in:
Improving the way they performed daily tasks like agriculture or ransportation.
Studying with master craftsmen, becoming their apprentices and improving the techniques used to do many things.
With the capacity to study and the new technologies that were being invented, like the printing press, people started to question their religious principles and traditional ideas.
Science, being based on truth and study, contradicted the superstitious believes of several religions of the time, especially those of Christianity.
Christianity and the bible were used to justify the existence and prevailance of social classes. The concept of Divine Right gave absolute power to the King.
New technologies had been created and improved since the Financial Revolution.
The better the technology the more efficient the means of production.
This motivated societies into understanding nature better, thus reaching a point in which Science challenged aristotelian and biblical conceptions of nature.
New ideas regarding government, law, rights, torture, social classes, taxes, trade, liberty started to appear in the minds of learned individuals, usually from the Bourgoie class.
Some members of the Clergy also defied the medieval system of government, but never to the point of denying the power of the church or of kings.
The creation of new simple technologies yielded (offered) wonderful results.
People realized the value of improving techniques and machines to perform the work.
Through the years, more and better technologies were invented. Each changing the way people lived throughout the world.
Eventually, the places that had more resources, in this case Europe because of its control of America, had enough money to invest on education and create a large, relatively educated middle class.
The members of this class of educated scholars challenged the authority of the church and created new ideas about the world that were based on science. Because these ideas worked, their principled were used to improve on the technologies at a growing rate.
Technologies changed until new techniques and machines were so advanced a Revolution was inevitable.
- Food production improved
- Transportation improved
Textiles became common and cheap enough to be bought by many members of society. The idea of fashion rose in the Bourgeoisie and nobility
THIS GAVE BIRTH TO THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
This gave way to changes in society...
by the XIX century a series of political
expressions changed the old systems based on feudalism and mercantilism
This involves the extraction of resources directly from the Earth; this includes farming, mining and logging. They do not process the products at all. They send it off to factories to make a profit.
This group is involved in the processing products from primary industries. This includes all factories—those that refine metals, produce furniture, or pack farm products such as meat.
This group is involved in the delivery and sale of goods. They include truck drivers and retail workers, for example.
This group is involved in the research of science and technology and other high level tasks. They include scientists, doctors, and lawyers.
Quinary Sector: MANAGEMENT
Some consider there to be a branch of the quaternary sector called the quinary sector, which includes the highest levels of decision making in a society or economy. This sector would include the top executives or officials in such fields as government, science, universities, nonprofit, healthcare, culture, and the media.
(owners of capital)
Appearance of new...
Give way to...
World War I
Has causes that are...
End up provoking...
That happen in...
The largest one being...
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
REVOLUTION THREATENS THE MONARCHY
- OLD REGIME:
The feudal system left over from the Middle Ages. It was organized in terms of three "estates" or groups.
PEASANTS, FARMERS... THE PEOPLE.
- OLD REGIME AND THE BURDEN OF LABOUR AND TAXES -
KING LOUIS THE XVI...
THE OLD REGIME
- THE THREE ESTATES -
1. THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH
The clergy who had power based on the medieval idea that God gives more power to some, rather than to all members of a society or the world.
2. THE NOBLES.
The nobility who had power because they had owned the land since the Middle Ages based on medieval ideas that supported the power of some over others based on religion and blood relationships
3. THE PEOPLE.
The Bourgeoisie or wealthy merchants and artisans. People who had great welath based on their efforts and ingenuity but who had no political power thanks to the medieval idea that those things (political powers) are only given to some by god.
City workers like cooks and servants who depended on other people giving them work in order to survive.
The rest of the people (peasants) who dedicated to agriculture. They paid more than half their income in taxes to the First and Second States.
It provided education and economic and spiritual relief to the poor in urban and rural areas. They hated Enlightenment ideas.
They owned most of the land and paid virtually no taxes. They hated Enlightenment Ideas.
They paid most taxesm resented the clergy and the nobles and embraced Enlightenment ideas.
- KING LOUIS XVI WAS A WEAK RULER WHO OFTEN RELIED ON OTHERS TO MAKE RADICAL DECISIONS IN CRUCIAL TIMES.
- FRANCE WAS GOING THROUGH MANY CRISIS RELATED TO FINANCIL DEFICIT (NO MONEY), LACK OF FOOD BECAUSE OF BAD HARVESTS, AND RESENTMENT FROM THE THIRD ESTATE.
- THE KING TRIED TO INCREASE TAXES TO SUPPORT THE GREAT COSTS OF WAR AND THE CRISIS THE NATION WAS UNDERGOING.
-THIS RAISE IN TAXES ANGERED THE ARISTOCRACY (THE MOST POWERFUL GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS)
- THE SECOND ESTATE FORCED THE ABSOLUTE KING TO GATHER THE THREE ESTATES IN ORDER TO DECIDE WHAT TO DO WITH THE CURRENT CRISIS.
- THIS REUNION OF THE THREE ESTATES WAS CALLED THE
AN ASSEMBLY OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE THREE ESTATES.
THE ESTATES-GENERAL WAS A FIASCO.
- MEMBERS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND ESTATES HOPED TO REMAIN IN POWER AS THEY HAD ALWAYS DONE IN THE PAST BASED ON THEIR MEDIEVAL IDEAS.
- BUT THE THIRD ESTATE WAS NOW WELL EDUCATED AND THE WEAlTHY MERCHANTS AND ARTISANS, THE BOURGEOISIE, HAD NEW IDEAS: ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS.
made some mistakes...
1789 - 1799
- THE THIRD ESTATE WAS LOCKED OUT OF THE ROOM WHERE THE GATHERING TOOK PLACE SO THEY WOULD NOT CAST A VOTE.
- ANGERED THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE THIRD ESTATE ASSEMBLED IN A TENIS COURT AND REACHING AN AGREEMENT THEY CREATED WHAT WAS KNOWN AS THE
"not to separate... until the constitution of the kingdom is established"
TRYING TO APEACE THE THIRD ESTATE AND ITS
, THE KING AGREED WITH THE REFORMS OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. HOWEVER, AT THE SAME TIME
HIS SWISS GUARDS
IN CASE OF TROUBLE.
THE PEOPLE THOUGHT THE KING MEANT TO ATTACK THEM. IN RESPONSE THEY STORMED (ATTACKED) THE BASTILLE IN ORDER TO GET GUNPOWDER TO FIGHT BACK.
14 OF JULY 1789
SOON, MASSIVE REBELLIONS SPREAD THROUGH RURAL AND URBAN FRANCE. THE ROYAL FAMILY HAD TO LEAVE THEIR PALACE AT VERSAILLES. THE KING RAN AWAY.
SPREAD THROUGH FRANCE. NOBLES AND PEASANTS ALIKE SAW A MASSIVE WAVE OF VIOLENCE RISE IN THEIR COUNTRY.
- NOBLE MEN AND CLERGY MEN JOINED THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY (MORE OUT OF FEAR THAN IDEALISM) AND SPOKE OF
LIBERTY AND EQUALITY.
- A NEW GOVERNMENT WAS CREATED BY THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY BASED ON THE VERY FAMOUS "DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN".
WHAT CONSEQUENCES DERIVED FROM THESE EVENTS?
THE CREATION OF A NEW GOVERNMENT BROUGHT CHANGES TO FRANCE AND EUROPE:
- IN ORDER TO KEEP ORDER AND MAINTAIN REVOLUTIONARY IDEALS THE NEW GOVERNMENT, THE
, BROUGHT UPON A TIME KNOWN AS
"THE REGIME OF TERROR"
- IT WAS A TIME OF MASSIVE EXECUTIONS AGAINST THE CLERGY, THE NOBLES AND MOST IMPORTANTLY AND CONTRADICTORY, THE PEOPLE.
- THE EXECUTIONS WERE CARRIED OUT IN FAVOUR OF MAINTAINING THE REVOLUTIONARY IDEALS PROPOSED AFTER THE DEFEAT OF THE MONARCHY. FRANCE WAS NOW BEING LEAD BY A MAN KNOWN AS
- THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY HAD SO MUCH POWER THE KING WAS VIRTUALLY A SYMBOL, NOTHING MORE. THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY PASSED LAWS AND COULD PREVENT THE KING FROM ENTERING ANY WAR.
- IN FEAR, THE KING TRIED TO ESCAPE TO AUSTRIA WHERE HE WOULD ORGANIZE AN ARMY AND TAKE BACK HIS COUNTRY.
- THE KING WAS DISCOVERED AND PUT IN HOUSE ARREST (CASA POR CARCEL).
- AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA WANTED THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY TO PUT KING LOUIS XVI BACK IN THE THRONE AND SO FRANCE DECLARED WAR ON AUSTRIA. PRUSSIA JOINED AUSTRIA LATER AGAINST FRANCE.
AFTER THE "GREAT FEAR" AND THE DEAD OF THE KING THE NEW GOVERNMENT SOUGHT ORDER THROUGH WHATEVER MEANS POSSIBLE.
HORRIFIED THAT THIS WOULD ALSO HAPPEN TO THEM, THE NATIONS OF EUROPE TRIED TO HELP THE MONARCHY OF FRANCE REGAIN ITS POWER.
- THE NATIONS OF EUROPE WERE TRIYNG TO HELP KING LOUIS XVI REGAIN ABSOLUTE POWER. - THEY ALSO WANTED TO DESTROY THE REBELS WHO LEAD THE REVOLUTION.
- THEY TRIED TO CONTROL THE REVOLUTION GIVEN THAT THESE NEW REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS MAY SPREAD UNTO THEIR OWN ABSOLUTE MONARCHIES.
- FRANCE ENTERED A WAR AGAINST MANY OTHER EUROPEAN STATES: ESPECIALLY AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA. THE STATE WAS IN CRISIS!
AFTER THE REVOLUTION FRANCE WAS UNDERGOING A SERIES OF UNSUSTAINABLE AND HORRIBLE CHALLENGES + THE FACT THAT NOW THERE WAS NO EFFECTIVE GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION.
- ALL THE PROBLEMS THAT STARTED THE REVOLUTION WERE STILL THERE: FAMINE, LACK OF MONEY, HIGH TAXES.
- NEW PROBLEMS HAD BEEN CREATED: GENERAL RIOTS, FEAR OF THE EXTREMISTS, THE DEATH OF THE KING (WHICH HORRIFIED MANY), THE LOSS OF POWER BY THE CLERGY (WHICH ALSO HORRIFIED MANY), AND WAR AGAINST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES.
AFTER SOME TIME ONE GENERAL OF THE ARMY OF FRANCE WAS ELECTED AS CONSUL (IN THE ROMAN STYLE OF GOVERNMENT): NAPOLEON BONAPARTE.
- THE DIRECTORY SOON LOST THE FAITH OF THE PEOPLE THANKS TO THE DESIRE FOR FURTHER PROSPERITY.
- THE ONLY THING THAT KEPT THE DIRECTORY IN CONTROL OF THE NATION WAS THEIR CONTROL OF THE ARMY.
-THE DIRECTORY DECIDED TO PUT NAPOLEON, A VERY PROSPEROUS GENERAL, IN CHARGE OF THE ARMY.
-THE NEXT DAY NAPOLEON TOOK CONTROL OF THE GOVERNMENT BY MARCHING HIS ARMY INTO THE GOVERNMENT'S LEGISLATURE ASSEMBLY.
- THIS SUDDEN TAKE OF POLITICAL POWER IS KNOWN AS A
COUP D' ETAT
(GOLPE DE ESTADO).
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY CREATES A
FOR TWO YEARS THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY ARGUED OVER A NEW CONSTITUTION. BY 1791 THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY HAD MADE MANY RADICAL CHANGES TO FRANCE'S GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY.
1. A STATE-CONTROLLED CHURCH:
Although this offended many peasants who strongly believed in the church, the NATIONAL ASSEMBLY took control of church lands and made the clergy servants of the state by paying them wages.
The NATIONAL ASSEMBLY did this in order to sell the lands of the church to pay for the great debt of the state.
2. A LIMITED MONARCHY:
The NATIONAL ASSEMBLY created a limited constitutional monarchy.
The king and his ministers would still hold executive power to enforce laws, but the ASSEMBLY would be the lawmakers.
3. THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY AND THE KING:
The NATIONAL ASSEMBLY handed over its power to the king and changed its name to the
THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
AND THE RISE OF POLITICAL FACTIONS
- ESTATES GENERAL:
The assembly of the "Three Estates" that gathered whenever the king wanted to make decisions about the nation's course of action. In this case the raise of taxes.
- POLITICAL FACTION:
A political faction is a group of individuals, such as a political party, a trade union, or other group with a common political purpose. Members of factions band together as a way of achieving goals and advancing their agenda and position within an organization.
SINCE OLD PROBLEMS PERSISTED, REVOLUTIONARY LEADERS TURNED AGAINST EACH OTHER IN ORDER TO FIND A SOLUTION TO PROBLEMS.
SAT ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE HALL; WERE CALLED "LEFT WING" AND SAID TO BE ON THE LEFT.
OPPOSED THE KING AND THE IDEA OF A MONARCHY.
WANTED RADICAL CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT AND PROPOSED THAT COMMON PEOPLE HAVE FULL CONTROL OF THE REPUBLIC.
SAT IN THE CENTRE OF THE HALL AND WERE CALLED CENTRISTS.
WANTED SOME CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT, BUT NOT AS MANY AS THE RADICALS.
SAT ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE HALL: WERE CALLED RIGHT WING AND SAID TO BE N THE RIGHT.
UPHELD THE IDEA OF A LIMITED MONARCHY.
WANTED FEW CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT.
AN ABSOLUTE MONARCHY
CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY KNOWN AS THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
A REPUBLIC KNOWN AS THE NATIONAL CONVENTION
THE NATIONAL CONVENTION EXECUTES ROBESPIERRE AND CREATES
- THE DIRECTORY WERE A GROUP OF FIVE DIRECTORS THAT RULED OVER THE NATIONAL CONVENTION AFTER THE DEATH OF ROBESPIERRE.
- ALTHOUGH VERY CORRUPT, THEY BROUGHT ORDER AND STABILITY TO FRANCE AFTER YEARS OF CHAOS.
NAPOLEON BECOMES RULER FRANCE
AT FIRST NAPOLEON PRETENDED TO BE A CONSUL ELECTED BY A
(A VOTE FROM THE PEOPLE). THIS MEANT FRANCE WAS STILL A REPUBLIC.
BECAUSE THE PEOPLE WERE DESPERATE FOR ORDER THEY DESIRED STRONG LEADERSHIP.
REVOLUTION THREATENS THE FRENCH KING
TENNIS COURT OATH
DECLARATION OF RIGHTS OF MEN
COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY
REIGN OF TERROR
Robespierre shown executing the executioner after having executed everyone else in France.
"Is it not He whose immortal hand, engraving on the heart of man the code of justice and equality, has written there the death sentence of tyrants? Is it not He who, from the beginning of time, decreed for all the ages and for all peoples liberty, good faith, and justice? He did not create kings to devour the human race. He did not create priests to harness us, like vile animals, to the chariots of kings and to give to the world examples of baseness, pride, perfidy, avarice, debauchery and falsehood. He created the universe to proclaim His power. He created men to help each other, to love each other mutually, and to attain to happiness by the way of virtue."
Robespierre, M. "The Cult of the Supreme Being," in Modern History Sourcebook, 1997
-The Old Regime was a system based on the medieval organisation of the people of France in 3 groups called Estates.
- There were three social classes in France in the Old Regime. These three classes were called Estates. Each Estate had a series of responsibilities and duties to the kingdom.
- The King of France since 1774 to his death on 1793 when he was beheaded. He was a weak King who ignored the problems of his kingdom until it was too late. He wanted more taxes and imposed them on an already suffering population.
- The wife of Louis VXI. She was from Austria. This made people dislike her. But it was the fact that she spent so much money what made people detest her.
- An assembly of the Representatives of the Three Estates that gathered to make decisions. This form of assembly had existed in France since the 14th century. It had been created by the king during a dispute with the Pope in which he neede the support of the Nobles and the People.
- The National Assembly was made by the Representatives of the Third Estate when they were locked out of the Estates-General. It was created to pass laws and reforms in the name of the people and, most importantly to create a Constitution that controlled the king and gave rights to the people. At first yhey wanted to make France from an absolute Monarchy to a Constitutional Monarchy.
- The promise of the Representatives of the Third Estate, the National Assembly, to create a constitution that protected the rights of the people.
- King Louis XVI, afraid of the power of the National Assembly, agreed to the creation of a Constitution. He ordered the First and Second Estates to join the National Assembly to write down the Constitution. At the same, because he distrusted the French people and the french army, he ordered his "Swiss guards" to protect him. The people thought he was assembling an army against them and stormed (attacked) the Bastille to get gunpoweder and fight the king's new army.
STORMING THE BASTILLE
- After the storming of the Bastille rumors spread to the countryside about the revolution. People believed that nobles were organizing armies to terrorize the people and a senseless wave of fear spread through the kingdom. People were angered at the unfairness of the nobility and the king.
FORGES AN EMPIRE
REFORM AND TERROR
- READ CHAPTER 23, LESSON 1, PAGES 573 TO 576.
- STUDY THE MAIN IDEA
- STUDY THE TERMS AND NAMES (FOUND HERE ASWELL)
-READ THE RED TITLES FOR THE MAIN IDEAS.
- READ GREEN TITLES FOR CAUSES AND EFFECTS THAT EXPLAIN THE MAIN IDEA.
- READ CHAPTER 23, LESSON 2.
PAGES, 577 TO 583.
- STUDY THE MAIN IDEA
- STUDY THE TERMS AND NAMES (FOUND HERE ASWELL)
-READ THE RED TITLES FOR THE MAIN IDEAS.
- READ GREEN TITLES FOR CAUSES AND EFFECTS THAT EXPLAIN THE MAIN IDEA.
SUMMARY OF THE REVOLUTIONARY BOAT:
So... everything you need to know summarized.
1: France was one of the most advanced and developed nations in Europe with a population of almost 31 million.
2: Inequality in France had reached staggering heights.
3: France was still organized in its Feudal system which had broken down society into three: the clergy, the nobles and the people. This was known as the Old Regime.
4: France was undergoing financial crisis, bad harvests, lack of food, and poverty.
5: In order to pay for wars and debts the King raised taxes.
6: This angered the second and third estates (the nobles and the people)
7: The Estates-General was convened to decide on the reforms to taxation.
8: Inequality lead to the Third Estate rioting and creating a new government branch in charge of creating a constitution that protect the rights of the people. This branch of government was called the National Assembly.
9: The king agreed to the National Assembly's demands, but, since he could not trust his own people anymore, he brought soldiers from Switzerland.
10: The people thought nobles were organizing an attack against them and they rebelled.
11. A great wave of fear spread through the country as people started to speak of the revolution.
Spoke against oppression
and in favour of freedom.
THIS ANGERED THE PEOPLE!
THE CONSULATE RULED BY NAPOLEON AS FIRST CONSUL
- BECAUSE OF WAR AND THE FACT THAT THEIR OWN KING WAS TRYING TO DESTROY THEM, THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY ABANDONED THE IDEA OF A LIMITED MONARCHY. THE POLITICAL FACTIONS BECAME MORE AND MORE EXTREME.
- EVENTUALLY THEY DEPOSED THE KING AND CALLED FOR A NEW LEGISLATURE (BODY OF LAWS).
- THEY CREATED A REPUBLIC RULED BY RADICAL GROUPS OF PEOPLE FROM THE NOW DESTROYED THIRD ESTATE. THE NEW GOVERNMENT WAS KNOWN AS THE
- IN THE END AN EXTREMIST GROUP THAT WANTED A REPUBLIC INSTEAD OF A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY, "THE JACOBINS" TOOK CONTROL OF THE NATIONA CONVENTION, SENTENCED AND EXECUTED KING LOUIS THE XVI AS IF HE WAS A COMMON MAN.
CRISIS LEADS TO ANOTHER CHANGE
MAY 5 -
BECAUSE OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS THE SECOND ESTATE FORCE THE KING TO ASSEMBLE THE ESTATES-GENERAL.
JUNE 17 -
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY WAS CREATED.
JUNE 20 -
THE TENNIS COURT OATH IS TAKEN. THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY PROMISES TO WRITE A CONSTITUTION THAT DEFENDS THE RIGHTS OF MEN.
JULE 14 -
STORMING THE BASTILLE. THIS IS THE OFFICIAL START OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. PEOPLE ARMED THEMSELVES AND TOOK CONTROL OF THE CITY OF PARIS.
AUGUST 4 -
THE FEUDAL SYSTEM IS ABOLISHED. THE OLD REGIME IS DEAD.
AUGUST 26 -
THE DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AN THE CITIZEN IS WRITTEN AND APPROVED. THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY CHANGES ITS NAME TO THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
JUNE 20 - 21 -
THE KING ESCAPES. King Louis XVI of France, his wife Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family attempted unsuccessfully to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution.
The king hoped to start a military campaign which would restore his rule.
They were only able to make it as far as the small town of Varennes.
The incident was a turning point after which popular hostility towards the French monarchy as an institution, as well as towards the king and queen as individuals, became much more pronounced.
The king's attempted flight provoked the charges of treason which ultimately led to his execution in 1793.
AUGUST 27 -
EUROPEAN FEEL THREATENED BY THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND ORGANIZE THEMSELVES AGAINST THE REVOLUTION AN DIN FAVOUR OF KING LOUIS XVI.
APRIL 20 -
FRANCE DECLARES WAR ON AUSTRIA. PRUSSIA DECLARES WAR ON FRANCE ON JUNE 13.
SEPTEMBER 2 - 6 -
SEPTEMBER 20 -
THE NATIONAL CONVENTION IS CREATED. BECAUSE OF THE MASSIVE CHAOS IN PARIS AND THE WAR AGAINST OTHER EUROPEAN STATES THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY GAVE THE IDEA OF A LIMITED MONARCHY AND CHANGED THEIR LEGISLATURE. THEY CHANGED THEIR NAME TO THE
NATIONAL CONVENTION, ABOLISH THE MONARCHY AND CREATES A REPUBLIC.
PEOPLE LIVE UNDER THE OLD REGIME.
So... everything you need to know summarized.
1: The National Assembly was succesful in organizing the Third Estate representatives against the OLD REGIME.
2: The National Assembly made a deal with Louis XVI that they would create a Constitutional Monarchy.
3: Louis XVI made a mistake. He accepted the petitions of the National Assembly but at the same time he rallied soldiers to defend him in case of trouble.
4: The people thought he was going to attack them to take his power back and they Stormed the Bastille to get gunpowder and weapons to defend themselves.
5: The King had to run away and for a moment there was no government. The Great Fear spread to rural areas where chaos and fear replaced the order established by the Old Regime.
6: Using this to their advantage the National Assembly took control of the government and forced the King to sign the declaration of Rights of men and the Citizen.
7: The King agreed because of fear and the National Assembly changed its name to the Legislative Assembly.
8: The Legislative Assembly ruled France. Political factions emerge as the members of the Assembly try to reach different goals for France.
9: Radicals, Moderates and Conservatives struggle to gain control over the Assembly.
10: European states go at war with France because they fear the ideas of the revolution might spread to their own nations.
France is at war with Europe!
11: In secret the King tried to organize a counterstrike against the Legislative Assembly.
12: This angered the members of the Assembly who turned radical gainst the King.
13: The king is trialed and executed for treason.
14: Seeing that the Constitutional Monarchy is not what the people want the Assembly changes the government once more, this time to a Republic ruled by the National Convention = another group of people more radical and more extreme in trying to preserve the ideals of the revolution.
15: In order to face the European nations that are at war with France the National Convention drafts (forces men to join the army) hundreds of thousands of men to fight the war.
16: Amongst the leaders of the National Convention one gains more power. A man known as Robespierre.
17: He uses fear and terror to maintaint the population of France under control.
18: Under Robespierre a period of french history known as the REGIME OF TERROR occurs.
19: Thousands are executed for going against the revolutionary ideas of Robespierre.
20: In the end the other members of the National Convention execute Robespierre ending the REGIME OF TERROR.
21: The war against other european states continues!
22: France is desperate to find an appropriate leader.
SUMMARY OF THE REVOLUTIONARY CAVE
JANUARY 21 -
THE NATIONAL CONVENTION EXECUTES KING LOUIS XVI.
FEBRUARY 1 -
FRANCE DECLARES WAR ON MORE EUROPEAN STATES. THIS TIME ENGLAND AND HOLLAND. LATER ON THE 7 OF MARCH, TO SPAIN.
FOR EVERY DECISION THE DIFFERENT FACTIONS WOULD PRESENT THEIR ARGUMENTS TO REACH AN AGREEMENT.
SLOWLY ONE POLITICAL FACTION, OR GROUP, WON OVER THE OTHERS UNTIL THE ENTIRE ASSEMBLY WAS GOVERNED BY THOSE IDEALS.
IN THE CASE OF FRANCE IN THE YEAR 1793, IT WAS THE RADICALS WHO WON KILLING THE KING AND CREATING A REPUBLIC.
THE REGIME OF TERROR!
DESTRUCTION OF THE OLD REGIME AND EXECUTION OF THE KING!
THE OLD REGIME!
EMPEROR NAPOLEON, ABSOLUTE RULER!
OCTOBER 16 -
MARIE ANTOINETTE IS EXECUTED.
THE NATIONAL CONVENTION EXPANDS THE ARMY BY DRAFTING (FORCING MEN TO JOIN THE ARMY) HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF MEN. THEY DID THIS TO FACE THE EUROPEAN NATIONS THAT WERE FIGHTING AGAINST FRANCE.
DURING SUMMER THAT YEAR -
MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE ASSUMES POWER OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC.
ROBESPIERRE WANTED TO DESTROY ALL OF FRANCE'S HORRID PAST:
HE WANTED TO WIPE OUT ALL TRACES OF THE MONARCHY, THE NOBILITY AND THE CHURCH.
CHURCHES WERE SHUT DOWN.
A NEW RELIGION WAS CREATED THAT
HONOURED GOD WITHOUT THE INTERVENTION OF THE CHURCH.
A NEW CALENDAR WAS CREATED.
THE REVOLUTION CHANGED
THE GOVERNMENT FROM THIS....
WHICH IS VERY SIMILAR TO THIS.
1789 - 1799
- The Declaration of the Rights of Men and the Citizen was a document written to speak of the unkistice of governments that ignore that the people are, in essence, te state. It was written to defend the Rights of men in a State. It spoke of equality, fraternity and liberty.
- TERMS -
END OF THE TERROR!
JULY 28 -
MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL CONVENTION REALISED THAT NOT EVEN THEY WERE SAFE FROM THE EXTREME IDEAS OF ROBESPIERRE. THEY EXECUTE HIM UNDER THE GUILLOTINE ENDING
THE REGIME OF TERROR
LATE SUMMER -
PUBLIC OPINION, WHICH HAD BELIVED IN THE LIBERAL IDEAS OF THE REVOLUTION AND ROBESPIERRE (LEFT), WERE NOW DRAMATICALLY SHIFTING TO THE CONSERVATIVES (RIGHT).
THE NATIONAL CONVENTION CHANGED THE CONSTITUTION ONCE MORE. THIS TIME CREATING ANOTHER GOVERNMENT AGAIN RULED BY THE BOURGEOISIE, BUT THIS TME BY ONLY THE HIGH MIDDLE CLASS.
THE NEW GOVERNMENT WAS KNOWN AS
AND WAS RULED BY NOT ONE BUT FIVE MEN. THESE MEN WERE MODERATES, NOR RADICALS OR CONSERVATIVES.
DESPITE BEING VERY CORRUPT, THE DIRECTORY ORGANISED THE COUNTRY AND GAVE IT STABILITY. SOME OF THE PROBLEMS THAT HAD STARTED THE REVOLUTION WERE FINALLY SOLVED.
Having control of the means of production, industrial capitalism gave way to Imperialism on a massive scale.
- STRUGGLE FOR POWER -
According to some Historians, human societies develop social equality through a process known as the struggle for power.
Human societies lived under the rule and pressures of nature.
It happened over the course of millenia as humanity developed ways to tame animals, gather food more efficiently, discover the means to create fire and overcome the limitations imposed by nature.
Through the Agricultural Revolution human societies begin to grow and create techniques to control nature. No animal or natural disaster can chlalenge human authority on the planet since then.
Powerful members of societies become rulers and use military power and violence to rule over the rest of the population which, for the great part, become slaves to the authority of the military dictators.
It happened over the course of millenia. Slowly common men gained education and financial power to have property of their own, including slaves. But with the gradual growth of societies in cities, slaves started to gain certain liberties like the capacity to marry and have property of their own. Even though they were still slaves they slowly gained the capacity to free themselves from their masters.
With the collapse of empires and nations like Rome, slaves became more and more necessary until a relation of mutual necessity was created. Leaders (landowners) depended on the slaves more and more until a relation of mutual benefit was created. When needed, slaves would organize and fight the dictators trying to overthrow them and replace them with better leaders.
Very similar to military dictatorship and slaves. Powerful members of societies become rulers and use military power and violence to rule over the rest of the population providing the land the people need to survive and protection from other rival nations, bandits etc. In exchange the people serve the lords and work the land for the benefit of the entire community creating a relation of mutual dependance between lords and servants.
New, better agricultural and crafting technologies are created. Because of this more and better things are created. Some servants use the surplus or better quality of their productions to make money. Over the course of centuries these servants become burghers, make enough money to buy their own land and create their own businesses. Nobles try to fight the burghers oppressing them with high taxes, violence and religious punishment. The Bourgeois eventually organize revolutions against the nobles and religions to reduce taxes, gain rights, and become free.
Through the creation of markets and the financial revolutions that allowed Bourgeois to take control of their nations, democracies are created. Rulers can no longer use military violence to enslave the people or control of the land to force the people to work.
The bourgeois have the capacity to take control of nations and create laws that benefit their businesses. Slaves who turned into servants have now become workers and earn a salary working for the bourgeois.
Workers use ideas from the enlightenment to fight the oppression of the Bourgeois. They try to increase wages (salary), improve working conditions, and elect governments that favour the people rather than the bourgeois. The bourgeois, on the other hand, try to keep control by maintaining control of the markets, the means of production (factories) and the money. They use their financial muscle to influence democratic elections. To fight, workers unite creating Unions (sindicatos) and sometimes revolutions.
CLASS STRUGGLE BETWEEN THE BOURGEOIS AND THE PROLETARIAT
Which creates a...
ORDER IN NATIONS
Which create global...
In colonies and under developed countries
In industrialized and developed countries
FEUDAL ECONOMIC SYSTEM
- AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY
- SELF-SUFFICIENT COMMUNITIES THAT PRODUCES EVERYTHING "IN-HOUSE" (LOCALLY).
- TAX SYSTEM ALLOWS GOVERNMENT TO REGULATE INDIVIDUAL ACCUMULATION OF RICHNESS.
ECONOMICAL PRINCIPLES 500 to 1500 a.C
- The system emerged in an isolated world of inequality that needed land and work in order to survive.
- There was a religious principle of Hierarchies. Every role in the society was predetermined by God. This system supported this idea.
- Taxes kept societies under control while paying for social requisites such as war (fortresses, soldiers and weapons) and tribute to more powerful states.
- The people spent generations living in a self-sufficient, isolated world capable of surviving. Which was the point.
- The people learned different agricultural, metallurgical and engineering techniques. Slowly guilds are created.
SO... WHAT WAS THE SYSTEM FOR?
500 to 1500 a.C
- During the Feudal Age, Feudal Lords had great power.
- Kings sometimes had to rely on them and this meant loss of authority and power.
- Some Feudal Lords tried to kill the King in order to become King themselves.
- Feudal lords ruled Europe controlling small, isolated territories that constantly waged war against each other and against foreign invaders.
FEUDAL LORDS AND THE KING
TIMELINE: Sixth to Seventeenth Century!
511 - Clovis ( a Frankish king) unites
Franks under Christian Rule. Polytheistic
religions are banned.
732 a.C - Charles Martel Stops Muslim Invasions.
622 a.C - Muhammad Unites Arab peoples
under the rule of Islam. Polytheistic religions
730 a.C - Muslims expand vastly and
enter the Iberian Peninsula
(Portugal and Spain).
800 a.C - Charlemagne (Charles the Great) is crowned
Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by the Pope in Rome.
Circa 800 a.C - Algebra books are written.
Muslim Knowledge finds new heights. More and more cultures begin to convert to Islam.
900 a.C - Outside invasions by vikings,
Magyar and Muslims spur growth of Feudalism.
Kings loose power to Feudal Lords and Church.
Circa 1000 a.c - Muslims Scholars, who preserved
Greek medical works an other books, share them with Europeans.
1093 - The "Holy War" (Crusades) Begin.
An attempt to retrieve the Holy Land from the
1100 a.C - Muslim literature and culture
flourishes. New trade routes established with the East.
- Muslim Turks continue to expand towards Byzantium.
1215 a.C - In England King John
approves Magna Carta. The beginning of the Parliamentary system.
1347 a.C - Bubonic Plague strikes Europe.
900 a.C - Turks begin to convert to Islam. Soon they rule over Anatolia, very close to the Byzantine Empire.
1300 a.C - Osman founds Ottoman State.
This is the Birth of the Turkish Ottoman Empire.
1453 a.C - Ottoman Turks capture the city of Constantinople. They rename it Estambul. The Empire continues to weaken until the XXth century when it becomes the country of Turkey after WWI.
1300 a.C - Renaissance begins in Italy.
1455 a.C - Gutenberg Bible is printed.
1534 a.C - Henry VII becomes head of Anglican Church in England. Breaks ties with Rome.
1555 a.C - Peace of Augsburg ends religious wars in Germany.
1522 a.C - Lutherans bring change to Europe.
Reformation brings German and European states into war.
1492 a.C - Discovery of America by Europeans.
1618 a.C -Thirty Years' War
1756 a.C - Seven Years' War
1680 a.C - The Glorious Revolution
1789 to 1799 a.C -
1776 a.C - American Revolution
- Form of Government based on landholding (owning land).
- Alliances between lords and vassals.
- Oaths (promises) of loyalty in exchange for land and military service.
-Ranking (hierarchy) of power and authority.
- Lord's Estate (property).
- Set of Rights and obligations between serfs and Lords.
- Self-sufficient community producing a variety of goods.
- Displays of courage and valor in combat.
- Devotion to a Feudal lord and a heavenly lord.
- Respect toward women.
- People are unified by a single religion and moral standard.
- The church has power over people's everyday lives.
- The church is involved in political affairs and rules above all.
IN THE EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES THE CHURCH
HAD THE MORAL CONTROL OF
monks and friars...
The Pope is the supreme ruler of the Church on Earth:
- He rules over all the christian world.
Cardinals help the Pope govern the Church:
-The Cardinals are like the Church Government.
They elect the Pope from amongst themselves using a system just like the one use to elect Consuls in Rome.
Archbishops rule over a specific piece of land within the Christian world known as an "Archdiocese".
Bishops rule over a specific piece of land within the archdiocese. This piece of land is known as an "Diocese". It always centers around an important city.
- Monks live in self-sufficient communities known as monasteries practicing the original christian tradition and focusing on religious education.
- Friars live a life of travels within a region. They live off the charity of the people who live in that region and offer religious education to the people of that region.
Popes rules over the
entire christian world...
over a large region...
over a smaller
control over a Parish, a small
church and its nearby community.
Monasteries are located
away from cities and are self-sufficient.
INVASIONS GIVE POWER
TO FEUDAL LORDS
- OF WESTERN EUROPE -
HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR
THE MIDDLE AGES
-The First crusade captured Jerusalem but later crusades lost the city and accomplished little.
-In order to regain its strength on the people the Church built the great Gothic cathedrals. This helped to prove to the people the great power of the church and of the Christian religion in Europe.
-Nevertheless, many kings rivalled with the power of the church challenging its authority in political matters.
THE BUBONIC PLAGUE
- The bubonic plague, aka the Black Death, killed two thirds of european population and weakened the manorial economy (economy of the manors).
-this plague gave Europeans the idea of death regardless of your good or bad deeds.
- Better farming methods - such as the three-field system and the use of horses - made it possible for farmers to grow more food.
- This brought population increase in the Middle Ages.
TRADE AND TOWNS
- People moved from farms into towns.
- Trade expanded and guilds were formed for merchants and artisans.
- Europe's first universities developed in the Middle Ages. Interest in learning grew thanks, in part, to the fact that muslims had kept and protected ancient greek writings. Muslims decided, out of good will, to give Europeans copies of the ancient greek wisdom.
- England and France developed strong central governments in which arose the first waves of democracy in Medieval Europe.
- The parliament and the estates-general are the two ways in which democracy started to control the power of lords and kings.
HUNDRED YEARS' WAR
- The Hundred Years' further weakened feudal power. The long bow changed warfare and doomed knights who could not fight in large battles as efficiently.
BUT EVEN THOUGH THE CHURCH HAD GREAT POWER IT WAS BEGINNING TO LOOSE SOME OF ITS GOOD REPUTATION. WHY?
- PRIESTS WERE GETTING MARRIED... WHICH IS NOR PERMITTED BY THE CHURCH.
- AND SIMONY! SIMONY IS THE SELLING OF POSITIONS IN THE CHURCH WHICH SHOULD ONLY BE OBTAINED THROUGH MERIT.
IN ORDER TO REGAIN ITS REPUTATION THE CHURCH STARTED TO DO SOME THINGS.
- The most important was the "Church Reforms" which made the church resemble a kingdom in its organization like we saw before...
- These reforms started in monasteries. Specially a Monastery in a place of France known as Cluny.
- The reforms lead by the monks of this monastery changed the mentality of the Popes and radically changed the organization of the Church.
- This created a growing wave of
. (Fervor means love and obsession to something.)
CATHEDRALS - CITIES OF GOD
- Another thing the church did was to construct a lot of wonderful cathedrals throughout the most important cities of Europe.
- This brought two great changes to Europe.
It made cities more important, so people started to return to a life in cities.
It meant that some people, very few, specialized in a form of education that was not related directly to Religion.
This meant the creation of a lot of work for a lot of artisans who started to improve the way they created things.
Better forms of crafting meant better products and, slowly, trade between Europeans started to occur in fairs (ferias).
- THE CRUSADES -
THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND THE MUSLIMS
In another region of the world, the Empire of Byzantium was having a bit of trouble.
The Byzantine Empire was the last remains of the Roman Empire that once ruled over the entire Mediterranean.
This glorious Empire had been getting smaller and smaller as time went by because of constant war against many enemies.
One of the Empire's most feared enemies were the Muslim kingdoms of the Middle East.
EUROPEAN RELIGIOUS FERVOR AND THE DEFENSE OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE
The religious fervor of the european christians was put to the test when Pope Urban II decided to encourage all nobles and knights of Europe to unite in the defense of the Byzantine Empire and to regain "holy land".
- Muslims control Palestine (the Holy Land) and threaten the Byzantine Empire.
- Byzantine emperor calls for help to the European States.
- The Pope wants to reclaim the Holy Land and reunite the Christian world as it once was during the Roman Age and as once Charlemagne had tried to do.
- To do this, the Pope asks the European Knights to fight for christianity defending the Holy Land from the Muslims who are considered unholy.
- Knights feel religious fervor and the desire for adventure, travels, riches and glory.
- Italian cities see this as an oportunity to become rich given that they are closes to the Holy Land.
- Italian cities start to trade with the muslims and the Europeans.
TIMELINE OF EUROPEAN HISTORY
THE POWER OF THE CHURCH IN THE MIDDLE AGES
: When a Lord or King was Interdicted the Bishops and Priests that lived in the Lord's land were prohibited by the Pope to perform the Sacraments. This meant people would not be able to be baptized, married, the first communion, confirmation or holy oils. This made the people in that land very angry at their Lord.
: Being excommunicated could happen to anyone of they broke the Canon Law. It meant that you were no longer a Christian and would, therefore not go to heaven upon your death. This was used to control the populations given that the fear to go to hell was so great.
: The law of the Church as interpreted by the Church from the reading of the Bible.
- Byzantine Empire is weakened.
- Pope's power, and therefore Church power, declines.
- Feudal Lords loose power.
- Kings become stronger.
- Religious intolerance grows. People become even more radical.
- Italian cities expand trade and grow very rich.
- Normal people in Italy start to become wealthy. A middle class beigns to rise.
- Muslims win the wars but start to distrust Christians.
- Trade grows between Europe and the Middle East.
- European technologies improve as Crusaders learn from Muslims who were much more advanced.
The church had moral control over the societies of the Middle Ages. This is why this time is also known as "the Age of Faith". The church used various laws to control the population,al of them based on fear. They even came up (invented) the Canon Law by interpreting the Bible.
He owned all the land in a Kingdom.
The word kingdom comes from the words king + Dominium.
The King mantained more or less 20% of his land to himself and granted the rest to the Church (and its Clergy) and a group of loyal subjects known as Lords.
The Church organised spiritual rituals in the lands of the King. There was a church in every city, village or Manor.
Lords took care of the lands of the King. The kings would give them this land in exchange for loyalty and political services. In order to take care of the lands and the people that lived there, the Lords would give a piece of their land to Vassals.
The vassals were loyal to their Lord. They took care of the lands by providing the Lord with an army made of Knights and trained soldiers.
Peasants lived in the Lord's land and were organised by the Vassal to work and provide the Lord with taxes. Resources produced from their hard work, mainly agriculture.
Serfs did not pay taxes so they were forced to stay in one place and live at the service of their Lord forever. They could not be sold, but were very similar to slaves.
The Knights were Vassals that trained in the dmany disciplines of the Knights. They were trained by the Lord's Knights and the church and their duty was to serve their heavenly lord (God), and their worldly lords, their Lord and their King.
They also pledged loyalty to their wife. Knights were special Vassals that had the duty to fight for their Lord as special members of the army.
They commanded the armies of the
Lords and Kings.
People that worked in towns and cities and recieved compensation for their work in the form of coins (money). They did many things like blacksmithing, carpentry, and many artistic crafts such as painting, sculpting, building etc.
Lords and Vassals became knights if they wanted to.
Some special people, peasants or even serfs could sometimes be chosen by a Lord to become a Vassals if they were very good warriors and held the ideals of the knights. This was very rare.
Nature was considered to be at the service of men and their societies. It served only the purpose of giving people things to live. Like a gift from God. There was no consideration on animal life, feelings or the emotions. There was ecological sensibility.
Emperors were kings that ruled over other kings. This happened when one king defeated another king and allowed him to live in exchange of tribute, loyalty and military services.
The Pope was the ruler of the entire Catholic world. He had control over everything the church did in Europe and he was one of the most powerful and rich people of the Middle Ages.
A deity that has power over certain elements of life. He organized society based on rewards for being good and punishments for being bad. The Pope decided which things were good and which were bad based on the ideas of the Bible. Fear was gods ultimate power.
CAUSES OF THE
The crusades had both economic goals and spiritual motives.
Kings and church saw the crusades as an opportunity to get rid of problematic knights that threatened the peace between kingdoms and church property.
Other knights to go to the crusades were younger sons of lords who could not inherit their father's position because of their eldest brother. these men sought (looked for) land and a position in the Holy land.
Both, knights and commoners (normal people), were driven into the crusading spirit by their religious fervor and the promise of the Pope Urban II that those who died on crusade would go to heaven.
THE FIRST CRUSADE:
In the year 1097, three armies of knights and people of all classes had gathered outside the city of Constantinople in the Byzantine Empire. Most were French, but there were also, Germans, English, Scottish, Spanish, and Italians.
These knights were not well organized, did not have good supply lines and had no idea of the terrain they were invading.
In the end they managed to win a war against the Muslims and conquered Jerusalem and three other places in the Middle East each ruled by a European Lord.
THE SECOND CRUSADE:
After some years one of the cities conquered by the Europeans, the city of Edessa, was taken by the Muslim Turks. In order to recapture the city, Europeans organized the Second Crusade.
The armies that tried to take Edessa back returned home defeated.
Some years later the city of Jerusalem was taken back by the Muslim leader, Salauhdihn (Saladin). Europeans had lost their power over the Holy City and the Holy Land.
The Second Crusade was a complete disaster for the Europeans but good commercial routes had been created between many European states and also between Europe and the Middle East.
THE THIRD CRUSADE:
Attempting to recover Palestine ONCE MORE! three European monarchs and their armies marched to the Holy Land.
Only one, Richard the Lionhearted, managed to get there and fight the ruler of Jerusalem, Salahudihn.
The two men fought for a long time. After many battles they finally reached an agreement. Jerusalem and the Holy land (Palestine) would continue to be under the control of Muslims, but European Christians could enter the city and pray at its sacred places.
Non-european christians had always had the right to pray in Jerusalem. Muslims never had a problem with that.
THE FOURTH CRUSADE:
The fourth Crusade was a disaster. The crusaders traveled from their home kingdoms in Europe to Italy and Constantinople where they got into trouble with the leaders of these two cities.
Eventually the Crusaders attacked and sacked the city of Constantinople.
The same city they were trying to protect during the First Crusade!
Because of this the Church of the Byzantine Empire (remember that as the original Roman Empire the Byzantines were christians as well) and the Church of Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had a fight.
Eventually the two churches broke up into two, the Roman Catholic in Western Europe and the Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire in the East.
Remember the battle of Tours? It was the battle in which Charles Martel, the grand father of Charlemagne, stopped the Muslims from invading all of Europe.
In that time the Muslims took control of Spain.
The Reconquista was a Crusade lead by the Spanish kings to take the entire region of Spain for Christianity. It included driving the moors, Spanish Muslims, out or converting them into Christianity. Jews also had to convert into Christianity.
This was the beginning of the "Holy Inquisition". People suspected of Heresy, the performing of religious rituals that are not Christian, would be condemned to repent or die.
By the year 1492 all moors and jews were driven out of Spain. Those who stayed had to convert to Christianity or die.
TRADE, TOWNS AND
MAIN IDEA: European cities challenged the Feudal system as agriculture, trade, finance and universities developed.
MAIN IDEA: The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades (religious wars) against Muslims and others.
WHY IT MATTERS: The Crusades resulted in trade and exploration between Christians and Muslims but left a legacy of distrust between them.
WHY IT MATTERS: The changes in the Middle Ages laid the foundations for Modern Europe.
Priests rule over a specific piece of land within the Diocese. This piece of land is known as a "Parish". A Parish is a Church and the community around it.
MAIN IDEA: As the kingdoms of England and France develop into nations, certain democratic traditions evolved.
WHY IT MATTERS: Modern concepts of jury trials, common law, and legal rights developed during this period.
MAIN IDEA: As the kingdoms of England and France develop into nations, certain democratic traditions evolved.
WHY IT MATTERS: Modern concepts of jury trials, common law, and legal rights developed during this period.
A GROWING FOOD SUPPLY:
videos for reference
SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND ENLIGHTENMENT
IMPROVEMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY
For example the harness and use of horse which we see here.
- EUROPEAN HISTORY -
- FORMS OF DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE SEARCH FOR POWER -
MAN against NATURE
MAN against MAN
Happens through the development of technology
Happens through the Class struggle = those who have a against those who don't have.