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RELI 1304 Major World Religions
Transcript of RELI 1304 Major World Religions
Who is a Hindu?
A Hindu is someone who identifies
with the religious beliefs and practices
indigenous to the Indian sub-continent.
"Hinduism" = non-indigenous, Western name
"Sanatana-dharma" = indigenous, Eastern (Asian) name
Hindu Sacred Literature
b. Birmingham, England
Bhakti Tirtha Swami, USA
George Harrison, England
Jin Shan Shan (of China)
Dharma - "the way of the universe and one's role within it"
Dharma - "The way of the universe and one's role within it"
The Three Paths
Atman - soul; true-self
Brahman - universal consciousness; GOD
Samasara - Sanskrit; lit. "to wander across"
the law of behavioral (moral) cause and effect
"path of devotion"
"path of knowledge"
"path of action"
Places of Pilgrimage
Banaras - Varanasi, India
Who is a Buddhist?
A Buddhist is someone who...
identifies with the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, called
The Four Noble Truths
(1) Life is suffering
(2) Suffering is caused by attachment
(3) Suffering can have an end
(4) There is a path theat leads to the end of suffering
I take refuge in (1) the Buddha, (2) the Dharma, and (3) the Sangha
Buddhism (Buddhist) = Western, non-indigenous name
Dharma, Buddha-dharma, Buddha-sasana = Eastern, indigenous name
Sanskrit; also Pali
Brahmins - Priests
Aryan or Indigenous Religion?
Indus Valley Civilization
The Pali Canon
Tipitaka = "Three Baskets"
Sutta Pitaka: Teachings of the Buddha
Vinaya Pitaka: Rules for Monks
Abhidhamma Pitaka: Philosophical Discourse
The Life of Sidhartha
Legendary Motifs - What led him to leave palace life?
wrinkled and bent old man
man with disease
end of attachment; absence of suffering
Main Families of Buddhism
Peasant - manual labor
Untoucheables - cleaners, tanners, etc. (the dirtiest work)
Who is a Jew?
(1) "Jew" and "Jewish" refer both to a religion and a race. (a) In the religious sense, a Jew is someone who identifies with the Abrahamic covenant as revealed in the Hebrew scriptures; (b) in the ethnic sense, historically, a Jew is someone from the Semitic, tribal peoples of ancient Judah (later, Judea). The designation was, and is today especially complicated by intermarriage and the allowance for conversion.
T - Torah
N - Nevi'im
K - Kethuvim
"The Law" (also, "instruction")
Hebrew (and some Aramiac in the latest books)
Judaism in the Time of Jesus
What Differed Among Jews?
What Did Jews Share in Common?
Interpretation of Tradition
One Loosely Agreed Set of Sacred Scriptures
What Jews Shared in Common also Made Them Very Different From their Surrounding Cultures
(with no Image)
Aramaic, Hebrew (written, some spoke), Greek, Others
Throughout the Mediterranean World and Mesopotamia
Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, Qumran Community, Early Christian Groups, Others
Torah (perhaps not all of the Prophets nor Writings)
Passover (First-Fruits, Booths)
The Main Families of Judaism Today
Most Influential Organizational Movement Since the Decline of the Priesthood
Developed from the Late 1st cent. CE
Organized Schools for Training and Study
Rabbi - Someone who gives advice on matters of the Bible and how to live as a good Jew
Mishnah and Talmud Produced in Palestine (esp. Galilee) and Babylonia
no soul; no permanent true-self
Then who are we truly?
Living beings comprised of...
- feelings (pleasure and pain)
All of which are subject to change
Who is a Christian?
A Christian is someone who identifies with the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth (by faith), and who is baptized into the Church.
Jesus of Nazareth
ta biblia - "the books"
Testament - Lat., testamentum - "covenant"
Luke 21:7-20; Matthew 26:26-29
When and Why Did Judasim and Chrstianity Separate?
50's C.E. - Paul's Preaching in the Diaspora
62 C.E. - Death of James
70 C.E. - Roman Destruction of Jerusalem/the Great Disaposra
132-135 C.E. - Second Jewisw Revolt
325 C.E. - Constantine's Letter
Gospels and Historical Jesus
Gospel - from Old Eng., god spell - "good news"
from New Testament Greek - euangelion (Lat., evangelion ) - "good news"
Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John
Mark, Matthew, and Luke = Synoptic Gospels
Main Families of Christianity
"Catholic" - universal; united
"Orthodox" - right worship
1517 C.E. - Martin Luther
Authority of the Bishop
Others: John Calvin,
John Knox, Ulrich Zwingly
Church and Rituals
Seven Sacraments (Cath., Orthodox., Angl.)
Protestant (other than Angl)
Church - Mid. Eng., chirche; Greek, kyriakon, "of the Lord."
Despite its derivation from kyriakon, "church" is used throughout the New Testament as a transltion of the Greek term, ekklesia (ecclesia) - "assembly." A "church" thus refers both to the assembled people of the Lord and also to the place where the assembly meets.
Sacrament - from Lat., sacramentum; a sacred sign (reflecting an inner, mysterious reality); essentially, an object or act that conveys God's grace to the recipient.
Protestants (other than Angl)
typically view these acts as merely symbolic and not as a meand to receive God's grace.
4 Main Groups
The Bible (Old and New Testaments)
Bible - "the book"
Who is a Muslim?
A Muslim is someone who confesses (by faith) that (1) there is no god but God, and (2) Muhammad is the messenger of God.
Islam - "to submit"
Muslim - "one who submits"
One who submits to the will of God as revealed in the Qur'an and Sunna of the Prophet.
Sura - "chapter"; lit. "row"
Aya - "verse"; lit. "sign"
arranged from longest to shortest with the exception of the Fatiha
Qur'an (Koran) - Arabic - "recitation"
The Life of Muhammad
622 C.E. (Hijra)
Founding of the Ummah (in Yathrib; later named Medina)
Hijri Calendar - Lat., Anno Hegirae (A.H.)
622 C.E. = 1 A.H.
Saudi Arabi (Today)
Main Families of Islam
Abraham, Ishmael, and the Ka'aba
12 Tribes of Israel
Key Historical Developments
Four Orthodox Caliphs - 632-661 C.E.
Ummayd Caliphate - 661-750 C.E.
Abbasid Dynasty - 750 - 1258 C.E.
Development of Kalam and Sharia
Arabic, "trodden path"; rel. to sunna - "example"
from Arabic, "party, supporters of Ali"
fivers, severs, twelvers
particular festivals and customs
belief in future appearance and political role of Mahdi (twelvers)
from Arabic, "wool"
brotherhoods began during Abbasid period
interest in mystical experience with the divine
few Sufi brotherhoods today
from Arabic, masjid - "place of prostration (prayer)
"There is no god but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God, and
I testify that Ali is his successor"