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Transcript of Motivation
Megan MOTIVATION Motivation is an internal state that arouses, directs, & maintains behaviour.
It is seen as a state or temporary situation that is experienced at any time What is Motivation? Maslow placed Needs into lower-level & higher-level:
- deficiency: survival, safety, belonging, self-esteem
- being: intellectual, achievement, self-actualization (self-
fulfillment), aesthetic appreciation
Maslow suggested that the lower needs have to be met before addressing the higher level needs.
When the lower level needs are met, motivation for fulfilling
When the higher level needs are met, motivation for fulfilling
them increases even more. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Specific: Provide clear standards of judging
Moderately Difficult: Provide a reasonable
Reached in the near future: Not pushed aside for
immediate concerns Goal Orientations How we attribute or contextualize our successes & failures, plus the successes & failures of others based in 3 criteria: Attribution Theory Mastery Oriented: Students value achievement & see ability as incremental.
They are not fearful of failure because it does not threaten self worth.
They are moderately difficult goals, they have strong efficacy Supporting Students MOTIVATION Supporting Autonomy & Self-Determination Behavioural View is extrinsic
Humanistic, Cognitive, & Sociocultural Views are intrinsic
Social Cognitive View is intrinisic & extrinsic Self-Determination theory:
Everyone needs to feel competent in their interactions with the world, have the power to make choices, and be connected to others or belong. Intrinsic Motivation: The tendency to seek out & conquer challenges as we
pursue personal interests & exercise our capabilities.
- Internal personal factors: needs, interests, & curiosity
Extrinsic Motivation: Not interested in the activity for its own sake, we
care only about what it will gain us
- External environmental factors: rewards, social pressure, &
punishment In the classroom: When students have the authority to make choices, they feel the work is more important. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Controlling event = student control & intrinsic Motivation Information for competence = student control & intrinsic Motivation Allow students to make their own choices for assignments & evaluation.
Help students make plans to accomplish their self-selected goals.
Hold students accountable for their actions
Provide reasons for limits, rules, & constraints in the classroom.
Use positive feedback There are 4 main reasons we pursue goals:
Mastery: Goals that focus on improving learning, no matter how
awkward you appear.
Performance: Care about demonstrating ability to &
Work Avoidance: Perfectionists who fear misunderstanding.
Social: A student's social network (friends, family, community)
influences goal setting. Help students set appropriate goals & commit to them:
Classroom environment: Create a supportive, cooperative learner
Feedback: Give specific, positive, & frequent feedback EARLY in the
Settings Goals: Help students set intrinsic goals that are realistic,
reasonably difficult, & meaningful. Remember that students need evidence that effort will pay off.
Curiosity & Interest are related, & are important for motivating
Interest in a subject was second only to effort when explaining successes Locus: Whether the cause internal (controllable) or
Stability: Whether the cause of the success or failure is
likely to change or stay the same.
Controllability: Whether the person can control the
cause of the success or failure, for themselves & others Entity View of Ability - The belief that
ability is fixed & cannot be changed.
Incremental View of Ability - The belief
that ability is a set of skills that can be changed. Self-Efficacy & Attribution affect each other If success is attributed to internal (locus) or controllable causes, such as ability and/or effort, then self-efficacy is enhanced Self-Efficacy is our beliefs about personal confidence in a particular situation, task, and/or subject area Failure Avoiding: Students tend to hold an entity view of ability, lack
competence, & self-worth. Students only feel as smart as their last test.
To protect themselves from failure, students will take fewer risks,
stick to what they know, procrastinate, & set either too high or too low goals. Failure Accepting Students: If failure continues & excuses wear
thin, students may decide that they are incompetent. Students may become depressed, apathetic, helpless, and feel as though there is little hope for change. Information against competence = student control & intrinsic Motivation Motivation is... All students had been assigned to complete an acrostic, purportedly to help them learn the chapter’s vocabulary. One student, Mandy, who later became high school valedictorian, intended to complete the assignment, saying she needed the points. Dana, who was later double accelerated and graduated from college at age 19, would not consider doing the assignment, saying she had better ways to spend her time.
These two students represent a classic motivational dichotomy:
Mandy was highly intelligent and was motivated by point accumulation;
Dana was an intellectual who was motivated by the learning itself.
When assignments are neither rigorous nor relevant, grades will not motivate our most intellectual students. These students may become selective consumers: They lose “points” and risk opprobrium—and we risk losing them.
—Steve Schroeder-Davis, curriculum specialist,Elk River Public Schools, Minnesota
Educational Leadership. (2011). Volume 69 (3) When Assignments Seem Dumb