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Variations on Mendel's Laws

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Jenna Barbary

on 13 February 2017

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Transcript of Variations on Mendel's Laws

How are other traits inherited?
Variations on Mendel's Laws
Incomplete Dominance: the hybrid, or heterozygous individual, will have a phenotype that is inbetween the appearance of the two parents

Incomplete Dominance
and
Codominance
In humans, there are four different blood groups:
A, B, AB, and O
These letters refer to specific carbohydrates (referred to as antigens below) that are present on the surface of the blood cells - Type A blood has carbohydrate A, Type B blood has carbohydrate B, Type AB blood has both, and Type O has NONE!
ABO Blood groups: A case of Codominance AND multiple alleles!
Pleiotropy and Polygenic Inheritance
Any gene located on a sex chromosome is called a sex-linked gene. Females are XX, Males are XY
Sex-linked genes
Codominance
There isn't a dominant or recessive
allele - instead, both alleles are expressed
in the heterozygote
AA
aa
Aa
Aa
Aa

Aa
The genetics behind
the blood type
"Multiple alleles" means that instead of having just two possible alleles for each trait, there are more!
In blood types, there are three possible alleles:

I
I i
A
B
These two are codominant!
This is recessive
Example Blood Type Cross
Pleiotropy: One gene has an affect on more than one character
Example: sickle-cell anemia
Polygenic inheritance is the exact opposite of pleiotropy.

In polygenic inheritance, two or more genes have an affect on one trait.

Skin color inheritance is coded for by three genes.
Example: Red-green colorblindness is a recessive, X-linked trait. So...
X X
X X
X X
female with normal vision

female normal vision (carrier)
colorblind female
X Y
X Y
male with normal vision
colorblind male
R
r
R
R
R
r
r
r
Example x-linked cross
Y-linked traits
ALL THE MALES HAVE IT!
BOOK: pgs 158-165
Full transcript