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WH 5.4 - Alexander's Empire

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Neil Phillips

on 6 October 2015

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Transcript of WH 5.4 - Alexander's Empire

WH 5.4 - Alexander's Empire
Macedonia was a kingdom of mountain villages north of Greece
1. King Philip II
—ruler, brilliant general; dreams of controlling Greece -
a very shrewd and fearless king.
Macedonians call themselves Greek but the Greeks looked down on the Macedonians as uncivilized foreigners who had no great philosophers, sculptors, or writers.

Philip Builds Macedonian Power

Conquest of Greece

3. Demosthanese
, the Athenian orator,
tried to warn the Greeks of the threat Philip and his army posed
Greek city-states could not unite because they couldn't agree on a single policy.
Athens asked Sparta for help against invasion, but Sparta declined
In 338 BC, Athens and Thebes united to fight Philip, but by then it was too late.
Some Greek cities even invited Philip to invade
At the Battle of Chaeronea one thousand Athenians were killed.
338 B.C. Macedonians defeat Greece - ended Greek independence, but city-states retained self-government in local affairs.

Philip Builds Macedonian Power
In 359 BC, Philip II became king of Macedonia.
2. He quickly proved to be a brilliant general and a ruthless politician
He transformed the peasants into a well-trained professional army.
He created massive phalanx formations and used his cavalry to crush his disorganized opponents. After honing his skills to his northern opponents, he began to prepare for an invasion of Greece.
After the Battle of Chaeronea, Philip changes his strategy and treats Athens with great respect, releasing Athenian prisoners of war.
Philip makes a speech at Corinth suggesting Greek submission to his kingship would be good for Greece.
4. The Corinthian League is formed, led by

King Philip, with the intent of attacking the Persians
At his daughter's wedding in 336 BC, Philip was stabbed to death by a former guardsman.
Philip's son, a half-Greek, proclaimed himself king of Macedonia. What he would do over the next 13 years would mark him in history as Alexander the Great.
Philip Builds Macedonian Power (cont.)
Alexander’s Early Life
Tutored by Aristotle - learned science, geography, and literature
Inspired by the
- kept a copy under his pillow
As a young boy, Alexander learned to ride a horse, use weapons, and command troops.
Becomes king when 20 years old
5. When the people of Thebes rebelled, Alexander destroyed the city killing about 6000 Thebans
Frightened by his cruelty, the other Greek city-states quickly gave up any idea of rebellion.

Alexander Defeats Persia
Invasion of Persia
334 B.C. Alexander invades Persia with 35,000 soldiers. The Persians quickly gathered 40,000 soldiers in defense, but Alexander captured a quick victory at Granicus River by attacking first and not waiting for the Persians to make the first move.
6. Darius III, King of Persia
, assembles an army of 50,000-75,000 men.
Alexander, realizing he was outnumbered, he surprised his enemies by sending his finest cavalry to break through a weak point in the Persian lines. His army then charged straight at Darius.
Alexander defeats Persians again, forces King of Persia to flee.
This victory gave Alexander control over Anatolia.

Alexander Defeats Persia

Darius tried negotiate a peace with Alexander, but, against the will of his advisers, Alexander declines, announcing his plans to conquer the entire Persian Empire.
7. Alexander marches into Egypt and is crowned Pharaoh in 332 B.C. - he was welcomed as a liberator
- he founded the city of Alexandria (best city he founded)
At Gaugamela in Mesopotamia, Alexander defeats the Persians again. - Darius panicked again and fled.
Alexander captures cities of Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis, all yielding huge treasures dristributed to Alexander's troops.
Persepolis, the Persian capitol is burned to the ground.
Ashes of Persepolis signal total destruction of the Persian Empire

Alexander Defeats Persia

Alexander in India
Alexander fights his way across the deserts of Central Asia and as far as India
Alexander conquers Indus Valley area in 326 B.C.
8. Alexander's men traveled for 11 years and marched for 11,000 miles.
Alexander reluctantly returns to Babylon where he announces that he will construct new cities, roads, and harbors and will conquer Arabia.
In 303 BC,
at the age of 32, Alexander became seriously ill with a fever and died
a few days later.

Alexander’s Other Conquests

After his death, his generals fought amongst themselves for control of his empire.
Three ambitious leaders emerged:
Antigonus - king of Macedonia and its greek city-states.
Ptolomy - took Egypt, became pharaoh, establishes a dynasty.
Seleucus - took most of old Persian Empire, renaming it the Seleucid Kingdom
10. These leaders

governed with complete power over their subjects, ignoring the democratic traditions of the areas.

Alexander’s Legacy
Alexander's conquest had an interesting cultural impact.
He melds Greek and Persian cultures, takes a Persian wife.
He included Persians and people from other lands in his army.
11. A vibrant new culture emerged form the blend of Greek and Eastern customs called Hellenistic culture.
Alexander’s Legacy

No more for Section 4!
1. What was King Philip II known for being?
2. King Philip II quickly proved to be a ___ general and a ___ politician.
3. Who tried to warn the Greeks of the threat Philip and his army posed?
4. Who formed and led the Corinthian League with the intent of attacking the Persians?
5. When the people of ___ rebelled, Alexander destroyed the city killing about 6000 people.
6. Who quickly assembled an army of 50,000-75,000 soldiers, surprising but not defeating Alexander?
7. When Alexander marched into Egypt and is crowned Pharaoh in 332 B.C., how was he greeted?
8. Alexander's men traveled for ___ years and marched for _____ miles.
9. At the age of 32, what did Alexander die from?
10. After Alexander’s death, how did his predecessors govern their subjects?
11. A vibrant new culture emerged form the blend of Greek and Eastern customs called ____ culture.
Chapter 5, Section 4 - Things to Know
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