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Alexia TONG

on 22 November 2013

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The Job Characteristics Model (by J.Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham)
1/ Skill variety
2/ Task identity
3/ Task significance
4/ Autonomy
5/ Feedback
Employee involvment
1/ Participative management
2/ Representative participation
Alternative work arrangements
1/ Flextime
2/ Job sharing
3/ Telecommuting
1) The Job Characteristics Model (JCM)
2) How can jobs be redesigned?
3) Alternative work arrangements
4) Employee involvment
5) Using rewards to motivate employees

How can jobs be redesigned
1/ Job rotation

2/ Job enrichment
Using rewards to motivate employees
1/ Establishing a pay structure
2/ Variable-pay programs
3/ Flexible benefits
4/ Employee recognition programs
Flextime means that employees must work a specific number of hours per week but are free to change their working hours within certain limit.
Job sharing allows two or more people to share the workload of a full-time job.
Telecommuting allows employees to work from home at least 2 days a week on a computer linked to the employer’s office.
• Tends to reduce absenteeism and increases productivity, helps employees balance work and family lives.
• However, it is not applicable for jobs where employees need to be at work at predetermined times (for example receptionists).

• Increases flexibility, can increase motivation and satisfaction when a full-time job is not practical. Allows organization to draw on talents of more than one person in a job, while only paying one salary.
• However, it can be difficult to find a compatible pair of employees who can successfully coordinate the demands.

• Allows employers to select from a larger labour pool. Leads to higher productivity, better morale and job satisfaction, and reduced office space costs.
• However, there is less direct supervision of employees. Employees can feel isolated. They may also be at a disadvantage for receiving promotions and raises.

Establishing a pay structure
• Pay is established by balancing internal equity (worth of job to organization through job evaluation process) and external equity (external competitiveness of an organization’s pay relative to pay elsewhere in its industry).
• Higher pay is linked to better-qualified, more highly motivated employees who will stay longer. Employees receiving a competitive pay level tend to have higher morale and to be more productive, which leads to customers being more satisfied.
• However, pay is often the highest single operating cost for an organization, which means paying too much can make products/services too expensive.
Participative management
• Participative management = the share of decision-making power of the superiors with their employees

To allowed this way of management, the employees must have enough knowledge and skills and to be trustful.

• Can be seen as a waste of time conducing to low productivity
BUT IN FACT : employees will be much more efficient by the fact that they’ll feel personnaly concerned and thus more interested, implicated and motivated by the task entrusted to them. Their job’s statisfaction will increase.

• Positive results of participative management : higher stock returns, lower turnover rate and higher labor productivity

Representative participation
• Representative participation = the representation of every workers of a firm by a small group of active employees

In almost every western European countries, the representative participation must be practiced in companies.

• The representative participation’s aim :
- redistribute power through an organization
- put labor on a more equal footing

• Two major forms of representative participation exists :

1) Works Councils : Groups of elected employees must be consulted when management take decisions concerning employees

2) Board Representatives : Employees sitting on a firm’s board of directors and represent the interests of the company’s employees

Despite of the increase of employees satisfaction and motivation, must of the time, representative participation has little influence on working employees or the organization, as the Works Councils are still dominated by management.

Employee recognition programs
1/ A form of Intrinsic rewards

2/ A inexpensive reward
Job rotation
- Periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another
- Reduces boredom, increases motivation, and helps employees better understand how their work contributes to the organization

- But training costs increase, and productivity is reduced by moving into a new position
- It also creates disruptions when a work group has to adjust to a new employee

Job enrichment
Variable-pay programs
1/ Piece-rate pay
2/ Merit-based pay
3/ Bonuses
4/ Skill-based pay
5/ Profit-sharing plans
6/ Gainsharing
7/ Employee stock ownership plans
Flexible benefits
- Allow each employee to choose the compensation package that best satisfies his or her current needs and situation
- Replace the "one-benefit-plan-fits-all" programs
- Can accommodate differences in employee needs
- Organizes tasks to allow the worker to do a complete activity

- Increases responsibility and provides feedback to correct the worker's performance

-Reduces absenteeism and turnover costs, increases satisfaction
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