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Introduction to the Kidney

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by

Lance Miller

on 25 April 2013

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Transcript of Introduction to the Kidney

Introduction to the Kidney The Vasculature Abdominal Aorta & Vena Cava What do the kidneys do? Blood Flow & Vasculature Located between T11 & L2 Introduction Vena Cava Renal Arteries Renal Veins Left is superior of right Partially protected by ribs Lateral of the vertebral column www.millenniumacademics.com The Ureters, Bladder, & Urethra The kidneys receive about
20 to 25% of the cardiac output (5 Liters/min). What do they look like on the inside? Renal Artery Renal Vein Ureter Where are they located? Abdominal Aorta Provides oxygenated blood directly from the heart
to the abdomen, organs, and lower extremities. Renal Arteries & Veins The Kidneys How big are the kidneys? Weight That equals 1.25 Liters/min, or
75 Liters/hour, or 1800 Liters/day Male Female Weight by Gender 125 to 175 grams
or
4.4 to 6.2 ounces 115 to 155 grams
or
4.1 to 5.5 ounces Renal Pelvis Calyxes Renal Pyramid Blood flow Blood flow Urine flow The Nephron The nephron has many parts. Renal Function Filter the blood
to remove metabolic waste. Regulate Plasma pH Regulate
Total Body Water Regulate
Blood Pressure Secrete Hormones The kidneys play a major role
in following five categories. Glomerulus Proximal Tubule Thin Descending Limb Thin Ascending Limb Thick Ascending Limb Distal Tubule Connecting Segment Collecting Duct The renal vasculature branching arteries that transition into two capillary beds (glomerular and peritubular) before forming veins that carry blood out of the kidney. Renal blood flow is regulated by the autonomic nervous system, autoregulation, and hormones. Blood enters the kidneys
through the renal arteries (red). Blood exits the kidneys
through the renal veins
(blue). The Kidneys The Kidneys The Vasculature Structure & Function Anatomical Orientation Head (Cranial) Left Right Feet (Caudal) The Ureters,
Bladder,& Urethra Ureters Bladder The bladder is composed of epithelial and smooth muscle cells. Ureters are composed of epithelial and smooth muscle cells. Urine produced in the kidneys passes to the bladder via the ureters. Urethra The urethra is composed of epithelial and smooth muscle cells. Dimensions The average adult kidney is:
11 to 14 cm long
6 cm high
4 cm wide
About the size of a fist. Abdominal Aorta Vena Cava The vena cava returns deoxygenated blood to the heart. The urethra passes urine from the bladder to outside of the body via the external genitalia. Before we begin, let's orient ourselves. It does so much more than filter the blood and make urine. The kidney is a fascinating organ. So, sit back and get ready to learn about... Welcome to this introduction to the kidney. Here we have the right kidney and the left kidney What is a nephron? The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney There are about 1 million nephrons in each kidney. The nephron is composed of a single layer of epithelial cells that forms a tube-like structure. Each segment consists of a different type of epithelial cell with different functions. How do the kidneys filter the blood? These are the major arteries that supply blood to the kidneys. These are the major veins that return blood from kidneys to the heart. So, what happens to all that urine? Brought to you by: The kidneys produce about 1.5 Liters/day, which is stored in the bladder. The nephron filters the blood and determines urine volume and composition. Rhythmic contraction of the smooth muscle cells helps propel urine through the ureters.
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