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Transcript of PPVT
measuring the receptive vocabulary of children and adults. *suitable for children ages 2 years and 6 months through 90 years and older
*Two parallel forms of the test (A&B) and each form contains 228 test items, each consisting of four full-color pictures arranged on a page.
*Examinee selects the picture that best illustrates the meaning of the given stimulus word Primary Purpose of the PPVT *Screens for verbal development
*Helps in measuring language development among nonreaders and people with written-language difficulties
*Individuals with autism/withdrawl *Allows individuals who would normally score poorly on group tests to do well individually
*Excellent to use with individuals who have moderate visual disabilities such as color blindness. By Janelle Lake & Melanie Noseworthy The PPVT-4 Scale measures language acquisition and has the following uses:
*Measures response to vocabulary instruction
*Aids in the diagnosis of reading difficulties and in designing instructional interventions
*Contributes to assessment of preschool-age children Domains Covers a broad range of receptive vocabulary levels, from preschool through adult.
Items broadly sample words that represent 20 content areas (eg. actions, vegetables, tools) and parts of speech (nouns, verbs, or attributes) across all levels of difficulty. Three-fourths of the items are from the previous 3rd edition. Many very easy items were added to improve the measurement of low-functioning preschool-age children.
Items were reviewed and analyzed for validity, difficulty and freedom from bias with regards to geographic region, sex and ethnicity.
Illustrations were evaluated to ensure they could be perceived by individuals with color blindness. *19 sets of 12 items that are arranged in order of increasing difficulty.
*The administrator determines the starting set based on the examinee's age.
*The test is untimed but during the standardization of the test, it was completed in 20 minutes or less by 90% of the examinees. *The PPVT-4 * Strong relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. (Ie. Understanding word is essential to understanding text) Components of the PPVT-4 Administering the PPVT-4 Points to Consider When Administering *Using other nonverbal response methods
*Repeating stimulus words
*Coaching the examinee is prohibited
*Allow time to respond but prompt the examinee after 10 seconds of no response
*Allow responses that are guesses *Refocus the examinees attention if needed
*Feedback and praise are encouraged but not in excess.
*Do not omit test items from the administration that you consider unfair to the examinee Establishing a Basal *Basal Set for an examinee is the lowest item set administered that contains one or zero errors.
*If the examinee makes more than one error in the first set administered, complete the administration of that set and then drop back to the previous set and administer all 12 items in that set. *Training items first and if examinee succeeds by getting the first two correct, proceed to the first item in the set.
*A word will be given and the student is asked to point to or say the number that corresponds with the image.
*Repetition is allowed if a student requires clarity.
*Continue with items until the ceiling is established. Establishing the Ceiling Set *The Ceiling Set for an examinee is the highest set of items administered containing 8 or more errors.
*The Ceiling Item is the last item in the Ceiling Set.
*If the Ceiling Set is determined to be Set 1, the examinee will be deemed untestable with the PPVT-4 instrument. Test Reporting Norm Sample *Age-norm sample was made up of 3540 cases
*Grade-norm sample was made up of 2003 cases.
*US residents were selected from ages 2 years and 7 months all the way to 90 years and older.
*Data used was information contained in the US 2004 census.
*Developed during the Fall 2005 into the Spring of 2006. Reliability *Split-half reliabilities for each of the 28 age groups in the age norm sample and for each of the 13 groups in the norm sample were determined to be very high with an average of 0.94 or 0.95.
* Alternate-form reliabilities fall between 0.87 and 0.93.
*Test-retest reliability had an average correlation of 0.93. This indicates that the PPVT-4 performance is resistant to factors that might cause the person to perform differently at different times. Validity Construct validity is established based on the correlation of this test compared to other tests of its kind.
* Expressive Vocab Test 2nd Ed. - Mean correlation of 0.82
* Was compared with the CASL and the CELF and the correlations ranged from mid 0.60s to 0.70s for elementary school examinees. Validity *The stimulus words used in the PPVT-4 were chosen based on a review of over a 12 published reference works. (ex. Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary 2003)
*These represent over 20 content areas. The PPVT-4 scores correlate highly with these assessments but slightly lower correlations were found on assessments that measure broader areas of language than primarily vocabulary. The PPVt-4 yields these different types of scores:
- Standard Scores
- NCE's (Normal Curve Equivalents)
- Developmental- Type Normative Scores (Age & Grade Equivalents) Strengths of the PPVT-4 References Dunn, L . M & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition. United States of America : Pearson.
Horn, J. (2009) . The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: A Detailed Look. Retrieved from: http://voices.yahoo.com/the-peabody-picture-vocabulary-test-ppvt-4-4641461.html?cat=15 .
PPVT-4 Publication Summary
http://www.pearsonassessments.com/hai/images/Products/PPVT-IV/ppvt4.pdf *Can be administered to a large age group
*Easy to administer and relatively easy to score
*Very low cost ($220)
*Two forms allow for effective re-testing
*Can be adapted to meet the needs of a variety of learners Limitations of the PPVT-4 * Convenient and simplistic to administer and may result in the examiner being careless
*Risk of over generalizing results
*Norm sample does not include people who showed evidence of uncorrected vision, hearing loss or who had limited English proficiency.